II. Guidelines: Heart Healthy Diet (AHA Guidelines)

  1. General
    1. Aerobic Exercise for at least 30 minutes on most days should accompany dietary changes
    2. Smaller portions are assumed as integral to the diet
      1. Count calories to achieve weight loss
      2. Exercise caution in eating-out
  2. Increase Omega-3 Fatty Acid intake
    1. Eat fish twice weekly or Supplement with Omega-3 Fatty Acids
      1. Hu (2002) JAMA 287:1815-21 [PubMed]
    2. Omega-3-Fatty Acids as of 2021 do not appear to significantly lower Cardiovascular Risk
      1. (2021) Presc Lett 28(1): 1-2
      2. Nicholls (2020) JAMA 324(22):2268-80 [PubMed]
  3. Increase fruit and vegetable intake
    1. Four servings per day: Slight drop in CAD risk
    2. Eight servings per day: 20% drop in CAD risk
    3. Fruits and Vegetables with greatest risk reduction
      1. Green leafy vegetables
      2. Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower)
      3. Fruits and vegetables high in Vitamin C
    4. References
      1. Joshipura (2001) Ann Intern Med 134:1106-14 [PubMed]
  4. Other components to supplement
    1. Increase whole grains and high Dietary Fiber foods
    2. Consider Plant Stanols
  5. Limitations
    1. Limit saturated fat and trans-Fatty Acid intake (replace with olive oil, canola oil, nuts)
    2. Limit Alcohol intake (2 drinks per day for men, and 1 drink per day for women)
    3. Limit sugar intake
    4. Limit salt intake (<1.5 to 2 grams per day is optimal)
      1. However, Cochrane analysis demonstrates no benefit to Sodium restriction
      2. Adler (2014) Cochrane Database Syst Rev (12):CD009217 [PubMed]
    5. Eggs
      1. Had been previously correlated with increased Cardiovascular Risk
      2. Further study demonstrates no increased Cardiovascular Risk
        1. Krittanawong (2021) Am J Med 134(1):76-83 [PubMed]

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