II. Uses

  1. Sweeteners suitable for non-heated use: All
  2. Sweeteners suitable for cooking and baking
    1. Excellent: Sucralose (Splenda)
    2. Good (blended with sugar): Acesulfame-K or Saccharin
  3. Sweeteners to avoid heating: Aspartame and Neotame

III. Precautions

  1. Non-nutritive Sweeteners are beneficial in limited amounts to reduce sugar use (esp. in Diabetes Mellitus)
    1. Modern Non-nutritive Sweeteners (e.g. Sucralose, Aspartame) appear safe based on longterm data
    2. Longterm effects of Artificial Sweeteners in children are unknown
  2. However, Artificial Sweeteners may cause a paradoxical increased craving for food and additional calories
    1. Artificial Sweeteners fail to result in same sense of reward from sweets
    2. Artificial Sweeteners have been associated with increased weight gain and Diabetes Mellitus risk
      1. Fagherazzi (2013) Am J Clin Nutr 97(3):517-23 [PubMed]
  3. Palate can be trained to appreciate lower levels of sweatness
    1. Attempt to use lower amounts of Artificial Sweetener

IV. Contraindications

  1. Aspartame is contraindicated in Phenylketonuria

V. Preparations

  1. Acesulfame-K (Sweet One, Sunett)
    1. Approved by FDA in 1988
    2. Sweetness relative to sugar: 200 times sweeter
    3. Safety supported by >90 studies
  2. Aspartame (Equal, Nutrasweet)
    1. Approved by FDA in 1981
    2. Sweetness relative to sugar: 180 times sweeter
    3. Not heat stable
    4. Contraindicated in Phenylketonuria
    5. Safety supported by >100 studies
    6. No association with SLE, MS, Seizures, brain cancer
    7. Low level of formaldehyde and Methanol form on intake
      1. Also occurs with tomato and citrus intake
      2. Not considered a health hazard
  3. Saccharin (Sugar Twin, Sweet'N Low, Sweet-10)
    1. Discovered in 1879
    2. Cheap with long shelf life and heat stability
    3. Sweetness relative to sugar: 300 times sweeter
    4. Bladder Cancer occurred in rats at very high doses
      1. Less than 6 servings per day thought to be safe
      2. Safe use supported by FDA, NCI, AMA, ACS, ADA
  4. Sucralose (Splenda)
    1. Approved by FDA in 1998
    2. Safety supported by >110 studies
    3. Sweetness relative to sugar: 600 times sweeter
    4. Excellent shelf life without heat degradation
    5. Not digested, so does not add calories to food

VI. FDA Consumer Article on Sugar Substitute Safety

VII. Resources: Other

  1. David Emery's Urban Legends and Folklore
    1. http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/blasp.htm

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies

Ontology: Artificial Sweeteners (C0003920)

Definition (NCI) A food additive which duplicates the effect of sugar on the taste, but with fewer calories. They are also called sugar substitutes.
Concepts Food (T168)
MSH D013549
SnomedCT 116274004
English Sweetener, Artificial, artificial sweeteners (medication), dietary supplements artificial sweeteners, artificial sweeteners, artificial sweetener, sweeteners artificial, Sweeteners, Artificial, Artificial sweetener (substance), Artificial sweetener, Artificial Sweetener, Artificial Sweeteners
French Sucres artificiels, Édulcorants de synthèse, Édulcorants artificiels
German Künstliche Süßstoffe
Czech umělá sladidla
Norwegian Kunstige søtningsmidler
Italian Dolcificanti artificiali
Spanish edulcorante (sustancia), edulcorante, endulzante artificial
Dutch Kunstmatige zoetstoffen

Ontology: Aspartame (C0003999)

Definition (MSH) Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH D001218
SnomedCT 11526002, 398791000
English Aspartame, Aspartylphenylalanine Methyl Ester, Aspartylphenylalanine, Methyl, Methyl Aspartylphenylalanine, Methyl Ester, Aspartylphenylalanine, L-Phenylalanine, N-L-alpha-aspartyl-, 1-methyl ester, Aspartame [Chemical/Ingredient], aspartame, ASPARTAME, Aspartame (product), Aspartame (substance), Aspartamine
Swedish Aspartam
Czech aspartam
Finnish Aspartaami
French Aspartam, Ester méthylique de l'aspartyl-phénylalanine, Aspartame
Italian Metil-estere dell'aspartil-fenilalanina, Metil dell'aspartil-fenilalanina, Aspartame
Japanese アスパルチルフェニルアラニンメチルエステル, アスパルターム, アスパルテーム
Polish Aspartam
Spanish Aspartame, aspartamo (producto), aspartamo (sustancia), aspartamo, edulcorante de bajas calorías, Aspartamo, Éster Metilo de Aspartilfenilalanina
Portuguese Aspartame, Aspartamo, Aspartilfenilalanina Metil Éster
German Aspartam, Aspartylphenylalaninmethylester

Ontology: Saccharin (C0036023)

Definition (MSH) Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D012439
SnomedCT 422323005, 27138006
English Saccharin, 1,2-Benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one, 1,1-dioxide, Saccharin (product), 1,2-Benzisothiazolin-3-one, 1,1-dioxide, 1,2-Dihydro-2-ketobenzisosulphonazole, o-Sulfobenzoic Acid Imide, 2,3-Dihydro-3-oxobenzisosulfonazole, Benzoic Sulphimide, Saccharin [Chemical/Ingredient], saccharin, SACCHARIN, Benzosulfimide, Benzosulphimide, Saccharin (substance)
Spanish sacarina (producto), sacarina (sustancia), sacarina, Sacarina
Swedish Sackarin
Czech sacharin
Finnish Sakariini
Japanese サッカリン
Polish Sacharyna
French Saccharine, Sulfimide benzoïque
German Saccharin
Italian Saccarina
Portuguese Sacarina

Ontology: trichlorosucrose (C0077046)

Concepts Carbohydrate (T118)
MSH C026285
SnomedCT 418992009
English 1',4',6'-trichloro-1',4,6'-trideoxygalactosucrose, 1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, alpha-D-Galactopyranoside, 1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-beta-D-fructofuranosyl 4-chloro-4-deoxy-, trichlorogalacto-sucrose, trichlorosucrose, trichlorogalactosucrose, Trichlorosucrose, 1,6-Dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-beta-D-fructofuranosyl 4-chloro-4-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, sucralose, SUCRALOSE, Sucralose (substance), Sucralose
Spanish sucralosa (sustancia), sucralosa

Ontology: Equals (C0439089)

Concepts Intellectual Product (T170)
SnomedCT 276136004
English = (qualifier value), Equal symbol = (qualifier value), Equal symbol =, Equals, equals, =
Spanish símbolo igual = (calificador), símbolo igual =, = (calificador), =

Ontology: NutraSweet (C0733460)

Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D001218
English nutrasweet, NutraSweet
Czech NutraSweet

Ontology: Splenda (C1742799)

Concepts Carbohydrate (T118)
MSH C026285
English Splenda