II. Definitions

  1. Arteriovenous Malformation
    1. Abnormal blood vessel configuration in which blood is shunted directly from arteries to veins, bypassing capillaries
    2. Either a single dilated artery or arteriole, or clusters of dilated arteries and arterioles join and connect directly to a vein
    3. Cerebral AV Malformations are the most common Clinically Significant AVMs, and risk Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  2. Arteriovenous Fistula
    1. Subtype of AV Malformation, in which a single dilated artery connects to a single vein
  3. Angiodysplasia
    1. Acquired dilation or ectasia of blood vessels, that develops with aging
    2. Results in single, tortuous, thin walled vessels (esp. capillaries) prone to bleeding
    3. Most commonly affects the Gastrointestinal Tract, presenting with GI Bleeding

III. Causes: Genetic AV Malformation

  1. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT, or Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome)
    1. Spontaneous Epistaxis
    2. Mucocutaneous Telangiectasia
    3. Visceral Arteriovenous Malformations
    4. HHT Family History
  2. Capillary Malformation - Arteriovenous Malformation (CM-AVM)
  3. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (CCM)
  4. Cutaneous Venous Malformation (VMCM)

IV. References

  1. Zyck and Sampath (2021) Arteriovenous Malformations, Stat Pearls, Treasure Island, accessed 3/30/2022
  2. Whitehead (2013) Cold Spring Harb Persp Med 3:a006635 [PubMed]

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Related Studies

Ontology: Arteriovenous fistula (C0003855)

Definition (MSH) An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
Concepts Anatomical Abnormality (T190)
MSH D001164
SnomedCT 439470001, 128617001, 11556006
LNC LP30443-3, MTHU011026
English Arteriovenous Fistula, Fistulas, Arteriovenous, Arteriovenous Fistulas, arteriovenous fistula (diagnosis), arteriovenous fistula, Arteriovenous fistula (disorder), AV fistula, Arteriovenous Fistula [Disease/Finding], fistula arteriovenous, a-v fistula, av fistula, arteriovenous aneurysm, fistulas arteriovenous, av fistulas, arteriovenous fistulas, arterio-venous fistula, arteriovenous av fistula, a v fistula, a v fistulas, arteriovenous shunt, AV Fistula, Fistula, Arteriovenous, AV - Arteriovenous fistula, Arteriovenous shunt, Arteriovenous fistula (morphologic abnormality), Arteriovenous fistula, fistula; arteriovenous, arteriovenous; fistula, A-V fistula, Arterio-venous fistula, Fistula arteriovenous, Fistula;arteriovenous
Dutch arterioveneuze fistel, fistel arterioveneus, arterioveneus; fistel, fistel; arterioveneus, Aneurysma, arterioveneus, Arterioveneus aneurysma, Arterioveneuze fistel, Fistel, arterioveneuze
Portuguese Fístula arteriovenosa, Fístula Arteriovenosa
Spanish Fístula arteriovenosa, fístula arteriovenosa (trastorno), derivación arteriovenosa, fístula arteriovenosa (anomalía morfológica), fístula arteriovenosa, shunt arteriovenoso, Fístula Arteriovenosa
German Fistel arteriovenoes, Arteriovenöse Fisteln, Arteriovenöse Fistel, arteriovenoese Fistel
Italian Fistola artero-venosa, Fistole arterovenose, Fistola arterovenosa
Swedish Arteriovenös fistel
Japanese ドウジョウミャクロウ, A-V フィステル, 動静脈瘻, 動静脈ろう, 動静脈フィステル, 動静脈瘤, 動静脈瘻フィステル, 大動静脈瘻, 大動静脈瘻フィステル
Czech arteriovenózní píštěl, Arterio-venózní píštěl, Arteriovenózní píštěl
Finnish Valtimo-laskimofisteli
French Fistules artério-veineuses, Fistule artérioveineuse, Fistule artério-veineuse
Polish Przetoka tętniczo-żylna
Hungarian Arteriovenosus sipoly, Fistula arteriovenosa, Arteriovenosus fistula
Norwegian Fistel, arteriovenøs, Arteriovenøse fistler, Arteriovenøs fistel

Ontology: Congenital arteriovenous malformation (C0003857)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are defects in your vascular system. The vascular system includes arteries, veins, and capillaries. Arteries carry blood away from the heart to other organs; veins carry blood back to the heart. Capillaries connect the arteries and veins. An AVM is a snarled tangle of arteries and veins. They are connected to each other, with no capillaries. That interferes with the blood circulation in an organ.

AVMs can happen anywhere, but they are more common in the brain or spinal cord. Most people with brain or spinal cord AVMs have few, if any, major symptoms. Sometimes they can cause seizures or headaches.

AVMs are rare. The cause is not known, but they seem to develop during pregnancy or soon after birth. Doctors use imaging tests to detect them.

Medicines can help with the symptoms from AVMs. The greatest danger is hemorrhage. Treatment for AVMs can include surgery or focused radiation therapy. Because surgery can be risky, you and your doctor need to make a decision carefully.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Definition (MSH) Abnormal formation of blood vessels that shunt arterial blood directly into veins without passing through the CAPILLARIES. They usually are crooked, dilated, and with thick vessel walls. A common type is the congenital arteriovenous fistula. The lack of blood flow and oxygen in the capillaries can lead to tissue damage in the affected areas.
Concepts Congenital Abnormality (T019) , Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D001165
SnomedCT 254204000, 390006005, 204487004, 234141001, 24551003
English Arteriovenous Malformations, Malformation, Arteriovenous, Malformations, Arteriovenous, AV - Cong arterioven malforma, Congenital arteriovenous malf, AVM-Congen arteriovenous malf, A-V malformation, Arteriovenous malformations, Arteriovenous Malformations [Disease/Finding], av malformation, a v malformations, arteriovenous anomaly, av malformations, a v malformation, arteriovenous malformations, a-v malformation, anomalies arteriovenous, AVM, arteriovenous malformation, arteriovenous malformation (diagnosis), Arteriovenous anomaly, AV - Congenital arteriovenous anomaly, Arteriovenous malformation, AV - Congenital arteriovenous malformation, AVM - Congenital arteriovenous malformation, Congenital arteriovenous malformation (disorder), Arteriovenous malformation (morphologic abnormality), Congenital arteriovenous malformation, deformity; arteriovenous, arteriovenous; deformity, Arteriovenous malformation, NOS, Arteriovenous Malformation
Italian Malformazione arterovenosa, Malformazione artero-venosa, Malformazioni arterovenose
Dutch aterioveneuze afwijking, arterioveneuze misvormingen, A-V-misvorming, arterioveneus; misvorming, misvorming; arterioveneus, arterioveneuze misvorming, Arterioveneuze misvorming, Arterioveneuze misvormingen, Malformatie, arterioveneuze, Misvorming, arterioveneuze, Misvormingen, arterioveneuze
French Anomalie artérioveineuse, Malformation A-V, Malformation artérioveineuse, Malformation artério-veineuse, Malformations artério-veineuses, Malformations artérioveineuses
German arteriovenoese Missbildungen, arteriovenoese Anomalie, AV-Missbildung, arteriovenoese Missbildung, Arteriovenöse Fehlbildungen
Portuguese Malformação AV, Malformações arteriovenosas, Anomalia arteriovenosa, Malformação arteriovenosa, Malformações Arteriovenosas
Spanish Malformación AV, Anomalía arteriovenosa, Malformaciones arteriovenosas, anomalía arteriovenosa (anomalía morfológica), anomalía arteriovenosa, malformación AV congénita, malformación arteriovenosa congénita (trastorno), malformación arteriovenosa congénita, malformación arteriovenosa, Malformación arteriovenosa, Malformaciones Arteriovenosas
Japanese 動静脈奇形, 動静脈異常, A−V奇形, AVキケイ, ドウジョウミャクイジョウ, ドウジョウミャクキケイ
Swedish Arteriovenösa missbildningar
Czech arteriovenózní malformace, A-V malformace, Arteriovenózní malformace, Arteriovenózní anomálie
Finnish Valtimo-laskimoepämuodostumat
Polish Malformacje tętniczo-żylne, Wrodzone wady naczyń krwionośnych, Wady wrodzone naczyń krwionośnych
Hungarian Arteriovenosus anomalia, A-V malformatio, Arteriovenosus malformatio, Arteriovenosus malformatiók
Norwegian Arteriovenøse misdannelser

Ontology: Angiodysplasia (C0085411)

Definition (MSHCZE) Získaná degenerativní dilatace nebo rozšíšení (ektázie) normálních CÉV, objevující se často s postupujícím věkem. Izolované, postranní, tenkostěnné cévy mohou být zdrojem krvácení. Vyskytují se nejčastěji u slizničních kapilár GASTROINTESTINÁLNÍHO TRAKTU a vedou ke GASTROINTESTINÁLNÍ HEMORAGII a ANÉMII.
Definition (MSH) Acquired degenerative dilation or expansion (ectasia) of normal BLOOD VESSELS, often associated with aging. They are isolated, tortuous, thin-walled vessels and sources of bleeding. They occur most often in mucosal capillaries of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT leading to GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE and ANEMIA.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D016888
SnomedCT 71072006
English Angiodysplasias, Angiodysplasia [Disease/Finding], angiodysplasia, angiodysplasias, Angiodysplasia NOS, Angiodysplasia (morphologic abnormality), Angiodysplasia
Dutch angiodysplasie NAO, angiodysplasie, Angiodysplasie, Dysplasie, angio-
French Angiodysplasie SAI, Angiodysplasie
German Angiodysplasie NNB, Angiodysplasie, Dysplasie, Angio-, Dysplasie, Gefäß-, Gefäßdysplasie
Italian Angiodisplasia NAS, Angiodisplasia
Portuguese Angiodisplasia NE, Angiodisplasia
Spanish Angiodisplasia NEOM, angiodisplasia (anomalía morfológica), angiodisplasia, Angiodisplasia
Japanese 血管異形成, 血管異形成NOS, ケッカンイケイセイ, ケッカンイケイセイNOS
Swedish Angiodysplasi
Czech angiodysplazie, cévy - dysplazie získaná, Angiodysplazie, Angiodysplazie NOS
Finnish Angiodysplasia
Polish Angiodysplazja
Hungarian Angiodysplasia, Angiodysplasia k.m.n.
Norwegian Angiodysplasi

Ontology: Vascular malformations and acquired anomalies (C1328272)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
Italian Malformazioni e anomalie acquisite vascolari
Japanese 血管奇形および後天性異常, ケッカンキケイオヨビコウテンセイイジョウ
Czech Cévní malformace a získané anomálie
Hungarian Vascularis malformatiók és szerzett anomáliák
English Vascular malformations and acquired anomalies
Portuguese Malformações vasculares e anomalias adquiridas
Spanish Malformaciones y anomalías adquiridas vasculares
Dutch vasculaire misvormingen en verworven afwijkingen
French Malformations vasculaires et anomalies acquises
German Gefaessmissbildungen und erworbene Gefaessanomalien