II. Exam: Normal range of motion

  1. Abduction: 150 degrees
  2. Adduction: 30 degrees
  3. Forward flexion: 150-180 degrees
  4. Extension: 45-60 degrees
  5. Rotation (test with elbow flexed to 90 degrees, see Apley's Scratch Test)
    1. Overhead sports (e.g. baseball, swimming) athletes have greater external rotation and restricted internal rotation
    2. External Rotation: 90 degrees
    3. Internal rotation: 70-90 degrees

III. Exam

  1. Test Active and Passive Range of Motion
  2. Test Apley Scratch Test
  3. Technique
    1. Compare both sides
    2. Measure individual angles (goniometer)

IV. Interpretation

  1. Passive range of motion loss (test if active range of motion abnormal)
    1. Adhesive Capsulitis
    2. Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis
  2. Loss of active range of motion, but intact passive range of motion
    1. Rotator Cuff Tear or Shoulder Impingement (painful arc in >60 degrees abduction)

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