II. Types

  1. Tic Disorder (e.g. Tourette's Syndrome)
  2. Tremor
    1. Parkinson's Disease
    2. Benign Tremor (Familial Tremor)
  3. Chorea (Arrhythmic, jerky movement)
    1. Sydenham's Chorea
    2. Huntington's Chorea
  4. Athetosis (Snake-like, twisting movements)
    1. Huntington's Chorea
    2. Wilson's Disease
    3. Neuroleptics
    4. Hepatic Encephalopathy
    5. Kernicterus
    6. Parkinson's Disease on excessive L-Dopa
  5. Dystonia (persistent muscular contractions)
    1. Dystonic Reaction (e.g. post-Neuroleptic)
    2. Torticollis (neck Muscle spasm)
    3. Blepharospasm (forceful Eyelid closure)
    4. Post-anoxic Dystonia (e.g. dystonic hand or foot)
    5. Writer's Cramp
  6. Ballismus (throwing-motion hand jerk)
  7. Myoclonus (brief, non-rhythmic, shock-like movement)
    1. Toxic state
    2. Anoxia
    3. Seizure Disorder
    4. Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease
  8. Other altered movement
    1. See Extrapyramidal Side Effect
    2. Akathisia
      1. Motor restlessness or psychomotor aggitation
      2. May present as inability to sit still, pacing or wringing hands
    3. Bradykinesia
      1. Motor slowing or psychomotor retardation
      2. May present as generalized motor and emotional slowing
    4. Catatonia
      1. Severe Bradykinesia to the point of immobility and muscular rigidity

III. Evaluation: Differentiate from Seizure Disorder

  1. Suppressible (Tics)
  2. Disappears during sleep
    1. Except Ballismus and Torsion Dystonia
  3. Provoked by stress or anxiety
  4. Irregular or arrhythmic
  5. No Loss of consciousness
  6. Distractible
  7. Family History prominent
    1. Some Seizure are also familial

IV. Differential Diagnosis

V. Resources

  1. Worldwide Education Awareness for Movement Disorders
    1. http://www.wemove.org

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