II. Pathophysiology

  1. Uncontrolled intrinsic laryngeal Muscle Contraction
  2. Neurogenic causes in most cases
  3. Psychogenic in some cases surrounding life stressors

III. Symptoms

  1. Jerky, poorly coordinated voice
    1. Variations in pitch and intensity
    2. Halting, strained or strangled sound
  2. Normal during singing, crying and laughing

IV. Signs

  1. Hyperadduction of the true and false Vocal Cords

V. Management

  1. Psychogenic Dysphonia
    1. Speech pathology
  2. Neurogenic Dysphonia
    1. Local injection Botulinum Toxin into vocal folds

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