II. Indications: Narcotic Overdose management

  1. Respiratory Depression (Hypoxia, apnea)
  2. Severe sedation (e.g. comatose)

III. Epidemiology

  1. Opioid Overdose is the leading cause of death in U.S. for those under age 50 years old
  2. Opioids have been implicated in 16,000 deaths per year in U.S. as of 2013
    1. (2015) MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 64(1): 32 [PubMed]

IV. Risk Factors

  1. Morphine equivalents >50 mg/day doubles risk, contrasted with <20 mg/day (e.g. Hydrocodone 5 mg every 6 hours)

VI. Findings: Symptoms and Signs

  1. Altered Level of Consciousness (CNS depression or sedation)
    1. Coma
    2. Lethargy
    3. Stupor
  2. Hypotension
  3. Miosis (except Demerol which causes Mydriasis)
  4. Pulmonary edema
  5. Respiratory depression
  6. Seizures

VII. Precautions

  1. Close monitoring must be continued after antidote
    1. Opioid half-life might exceed that of Naloxone
  2. Consider Very Low Dose Naloxone Protocol
    1. Indicated for Cancer Pain or Chronic Pain (prevents severe Rebound Pain)
  3. Heroin and other Illicit Drugs are often adulterated with synthetic Opioids at inconsistent doses
    1. Fentanyl (most common)
    2. Alpha-methylfentanyl
    3. Carfentanil

VIII. Differential Diagnosis: Suspected Opioid Overdose not reversing with Naloxone

  1. Clonidine Overdose
  2. Drugs of Abuse often have very high potency
    1. Krokodil (use Naloxone 2 mg)
    2. Fentanyl derivative (may require Naloxone up to 10 mg )

IX. Management: General

  1. Naloxone
    1. See doses below (or see Naloxone)
    2. Not indicated for a mentating patient with normal Vital Signs
    3. Indicated for hypoventilation <9 breaths/min or increased EtCO2
  2. Consider for long acting Opioids (Oxycontin, MS Contin, Methadone, Zohydro)
    1. Naloxone continuous infusion
    2. Nalmefene (Revex)
  3. Consider 1 or 2 Nasal Trumpets (Nasopharyngeal Airways)
  4. Monitoring
    1. EtCO2 and Oxygen Saturation
      1. Oxygen Saturation alone is insufficient
      2. Supplemental Oxygen can result in Apneic Oxygenation with normal O2Sat but rising carbon dioxide
  5. Observe in Emergency Department for at least one hour (some prefer 4 hour observation)
    1. Naloxone effect lasts 45 minutes (opiod effects may last longer)
    2. Observe longer for long acting agents (e.g. Methadone) or suspected dual ingestion (e.g. with Fentanyl)
    3. Shorter observations may be safe with shorter acting agents (e.g. Heroin)
      1. Willman (2017) Clin Toxicol 55(2): 81-87 +PMID: 27849133 [PubMed]

X. Management: Naloxone (Narcan)

  1. Adults
    1. Initial
      1. No respiratory depression: 0.1 to 0.4 mg IV or IM
      2. Respiratory depression: 1 to 2 mg IV or IM
      3. Alternative initial protocol
        1. Very Low Dose Naloxone Protocol (slow titration method)
        2. Prepare Naloxone 0.4 mg/ml ampule in 10 ml saline (0.04 mg/ml)
        3. Administer Naloxone in 0.02 to 0.04 mg (0.5 to 1 ml) increments
    2. Next, if no response or incomplete response (synthetic Opioids may require high Naloxone dose)
      1. Give 2 mg IV or IM every 3-5 minutes to a total of 10-20 mg
    3. Infusion
      1. Naloxone 2 mg in 500 ml D5W or NS (0.004 mg/ml) titrating to response
  2. Children
    1. Initial
      1. No respiratory depression: 0.01 mg/kg IV or IM
      2. Respiratory depression: 0.1 mg/kg IV or IM
    2. Next, if no response or incomplete response
      1. Give 0.1 mg/kg IV or IM

XI. Complications

  1. Death
    1. More than 50,000 Opioid Overdose deaths in 2016 (U.S.)
  2. Pulmonary edema
    1. Typically follows Opioid reversal (unclear etiology)
    2. May require Endotracheal Intubation

XII. Prevention: Prescribed Chronic Opioids

  1. Best prevention is to keep Opioid naive patients naive
    1. See Emergency Department Pain Management
  2. Identify alternatives to Opioids in Chronic Pain Management
  3. Prescribe Home Naloxone in case of Overdose for those on high dose Opioids
  4. Keep equianalgesic doses in mind when administering parenteral Opioids
    1. Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) 1 mg is equivalent to up to 10 mg of Morphine Sulfate
  5. Exercise caution when combining agents that blunt respiratory drive (e.g. Opioids with Benzodiazepines)
    1. Benzodiazepines
    2. Muscle relaxants
  6. Analgesic tolerance occurs before tolerance to respiratory depression
    1. Opioid tolerant patients are at increased risk of apnea due to high dose Opioids
  7. Exercise caution in already compromised respiratory status
    1. COPD
    2. Sleep Apnea

XIII. Prevention: Opioid Abuse

  1. See Opioid Abuse for protocol
  2. Prescribe Home Naloxone
  3. Needle exchange program
  4. Infectious disease screening (e.g. HIV, Hepatitis C, as well as STDs)
  5. Offer Chemical Dependency treatment
    1. Treatment is often declined, as patients walk out of ED prior to discharge process
    2. Sample script (modified from Reuben Strayer, MD, in reference below)
      1. I know you have a complicated life and wish things could be different
      2. When you are ready to make a change, we can help
      3. Come back anytime; we are here all day, every day

XIV. References

  1. Mason and Armenian in Herbert (2018) EM:Rap 18(7):8-9
  2. Strayer and Swaminathan in Herbert (2018) EM:Rap 18(9): 3-6
  3. Swaminathan, Hayes, LaPoint in Herbert (2017) EM:Rap 17(5): 2-3

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Ontology: Overdose of opiate (C0579142)

Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
SnomedCT 242253008
English opiate overdose, Overdose of opiate, Overdose of opiate (disorder)
Spanish sobredosis de opiáceos (trastorno), sobredosis de opiáceos