II. Pathophysiology

  1. Cardiac Arrest resulting in sudden cessation of Cardiac Function
  2. Primary rhythms leading to Sudden Cardiac Death
    1. Ventricular Tachycardia degenerating into Ventricular Fibrillation
    2. Electromechanical Dissociation
    3. Bradycardic Arrhythmias

III. Epidemiology

  1. Incidence: 500,000 cases per year in United States
  2. Gender: Men account for 75% of cases

IV. Causes: Common

  1. Coronary Artery Disease (66% of cases)
  2. Cardiomyopathy with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction
  3. Aortic Stenosis
  4. Electrolyte disturbance (especially drug induced)
  5. Viral Myocarditis
  6. Ventricular Arrhythmias

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Ontology: Sudden Cardiac Death (C0085298)

Definition (NCI) An unexpected natural death from a cardiac cause within a short time period from the onset of symptoms.(NICHD)
Definition (CSP) unexpected natural death due to cardiac causes that occur rapidly after the onset of acute symptoms in a patient with diagnosed or undiagnosed preexisting heart disease, in whom cardiac dysfunction produces abrupt loss of cerebral blood flow.
Definition (MSH) Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
Concepts Pathologic Function (T046)
MSH D016757
SnomedCT 95281009
English Cardiac Death, Sudden, Cardiac Sudden Death, Death, Cardiac Sudden, Death, Sudden Cardiac, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Sudden Death, Cardiac, Sudden Cardiac Death, SCD, SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH, sudden cardiac death (diagnosis), sudden cardiac death, sudden/instantaneous cardiac death, Death, Sudden, Cardiac [Disease/Finding], cardiac sudden death, cardiac death sudden, death sudden cardiac, sudden death cardiac, DEATH, SUDDEN CARDIAC, CARDIAC DEATH, SUDDEN, Sudden cardiac death, Sudden cardiac death (disorder), cardiac death; sudden, sudden; cardiac death
Japanese 心突然死, シントツゼンシ, 急性心臓死, 突然死-心臓, 心臓急死, 心臓性突然死, 心臓突然死
Swedish Plötslig hjärtdöd
Finnish Sydänperäinen äkkikuolema
Czech Náhlá srdeční smrt, náhlá srdeční smrt, smrt náhlá srdeční
Spanish Muerte Cardíaca Súbita, Paro Cardíaco Súbito, muerte súbita cardíaca (trastorno), muerte súbita cardíaca, Muerte cardiaca súbita, Muerte Súbita Cardíaca
Portuguese Morte Cardíaca Súbita, Parada Cardíaca Súbita, Morte cardíaca súbita, Morte Súbita Cardíaca
French Mort soudaine d'origine cardiaque, Mort soudaine par arrêt cardiaque, Mort subite cardiaque, Mort cardiaque subite, Mort subite d'origine cardiaque
Polish Nagła śmierć sercowa, Nagły zgon sercowy, Śmierć nagła sercowa, Zgon sercowy nagły
Hungarian Hirtelen szívhalál
Norwegian Plutselig hjertedød
Dutch hartdood; plots, plots; hartdood, plotse cardiale dood, Cardiale dood, plotselinge, Dood, plotselinge cardiale, Plotselinge cardiale dood
German ploetzlicher Herztod, Herztod, plötzlicher, Plötzlicher Herztod, Tod, plötzlicher Herz-
Italian Morte cardiaca improvvisa