II. Epidemiology

  1. Use is popular in Germany

III. Indications (Purported benefits)

  1. Systemic use
    1. Immunostimulant for preventing and treating infection
  2. Topical use
    1. Stings and bites
    2. Wounds including Burn Injury
    3. Inflammation

IV. Efficacy

  1. Recent studies suggest no benefit in Common Cold
    1. Barrett (2002) Ann Intern Med 137:939-46 [PubMed]
    2. Yale (2004) Arch Intern Med 164:1237-41 [PubMed]
  2. Previously thought to be effective in Common Cold
    1. Decreases Common Cold symptom duration
    2. May have slight benefit in preventing the Common Cold

V. Mechanism

  1. Increases Phagocytosis
  2. Increases lymphocytic activity
  3. Increases activity against tumor cells
  4. No known bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties

VI. Dosing

  1. Echinacea 800 mg per day

VII. Contraindications

  1. Daisy Allergy
  2. Progressive autoimmune or systemic disease
    1. Acquired Immune Deficiency (AIDS)
    2. Tuberculosis
    3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
    5. Multiple Sclerosis

VIII. Precautions

  1. Some recommend limiting to under 8 successive weeks

IX. Adverse Effects

  1. Immunosuppression may occur with prolonged use
    1. Opportunistic infections
    2. Impaired Wound Healing
  2. Hepatotoxicity risk with prolonged use

X. Drug Interactions

  1. CYP1A2 and CYP3A4
    1. May affect drug levels of these P450 metabolized agents, even with shortterm Echinacea use

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies

Ontology: Echinacea Preparation (C0752270)

Definition (NCI) An over-the-counter herbal remedy, extracted from North American herb purple coneflower belonging to the Family Asteraceae, with potential immunostimulating and anti-inflammatory activities. Echinacea extract might be helpful to boost the body's immune system and to help fight infections, especially those of the upper respiratory tract. This herbal remedy seems to increase the growth and activity of immune cells, including white blood cells, macrophages and natural killer cells, and to stimulate phagocytosis. Furthermore, echinacoside, one of the components in Echinacea extract, has been shown to inhibit hyaluronidase, whose action increases tissue permeability, thereby Echinacea extract may promote tissue growth for wound healing by preventing bacteria spreading into healthy cells.
Concepts Organic Chemical (T109) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
SnomedCT 412177003, 412179000
English Echinacea Extract, Echinacea, echinacea (medication), echinacea extract, echinacea, ECHINACEA, ECHINACEA, UNSPECIFIED, Echinacea, Unspecified, echinacea, unspecified, Echinacea Preparation, Echinacea extract (substance), Echinacea extract, Echinacea preparation (product), Echinacea preparation
Spanish preparaciĆ³n con Echinacea (producto), Echinacea (producto), Echinacea, preparaciĆ³n con Echinacea, extracto de Echinacea (sustancia), extracto de Echinacea