II. Definitions

  1. Human Rhinovirus (HRV)
    1. Picornaviridae family, enterovirus genus, non-enveloped, icosehedral, single-stranded positive sense RNA virus
    2. Over 100 Rhinovirus serotypes have been identified since first discovered in 1950
    3. Rhinoviruses infect the respiratory tract and cause the Common Cold, viral Rhinosinusitis and viral Otitis Media

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Classification
    1. Picornaviridae family
    2. Enterovirus genus
  2. Structure
    1. Icosehedral
    2. Single-stranded positive sense, 7200 base pair RNA virus (ssRNA)
    3. Non-enveloped, but as a viral capsid of 60 copies each of 4 Proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, VP4)
  3. Groups
    1. Group A (74 serotypes)
    2. Group B (25 serotypes)
    3. Group C (50 serotypes, identified in 2009, 40 years after the original A and B types were identified)
  4. Cell Binding via Cell Surface Receptors
    1. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule (ICAM-1, responsible for 90% of HRV binding sites)
    2. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR, minor binding site)
  5. Transmission
    1. Person to person transmission intranasal or Conjunctival via aerosol, hand to hand, or other fomite
    2. Survives in indoor environments at Ambient Temperature for hours to days
    3. Survives on undisturbed skin for 2 hours

IV. Associated Conditions

  1. Upper resiratory infection
    1. Common Cold
    2. Viral Rhinosinusitis
    3. VIral Otitis Media
  2. Lower Respiratory Infection (esp. Asthma, infants, elderly, Immunocompromised)
    1. Viral Pneumonia
    2. Croup
    3. Bronchiolitis
    4. COPD Exacerbation
    5. Asthma Pathogenesis
    6. Severe Bronchiolitis

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