II. Epidemiology

  1. Identified in winter of 2015-16 in Brazil, with thousands of new Microcephaly cases

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Perinatal or in utero transmission from mothers infected during pregnancy (esp. first and second trimester)

IV. Signs: Head

  1. Severe Microcephaly (1-13% risk with prenatal Zika infection)
  2. Misshapen skull
  3. Scalp rugae
  4. Intracranial calcifications

V. Complications

  1. Eye
    1. Chorioretinal atrophy or scarring
  2. Neurologic
    1. Vision and Hearing Deficits
    2. Cognitive disorders
    3. Motor disorders, hypertonia, spasticity, Tremors
    4. Seizure Disorders
    5. Swallowing Disorders
  3. Orthopedic
    1. Clubfoot
    2. Arthrogryposis (joint contractures)

VI. Resources

  1. U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry
    1. https://www.cdc.gov/zika/reporting/registry.html
  2. Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (Puerto Rico)
    1. https://www.cdc.gov/zika/reporting/zapss.html

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