II. Physiology

  1. See Lipoprotein
  2. Small (18-25 nm) and light (1.019 to 1.063 g/ml) Lipoproteins, with primarily a core of Cholesterol esters and a lower concentration of Triglycerides
  3. LDL transports Cholesterol esters from the liver throughout the body
  4. Phospholipid monolayer surface contains a single Apolipoprotein A100

III. Calculation (Accurate if Triglycerides < 400 mg/dl)

  1. LDL = Total Cholesterol - HDL - (Triglyceride / 5) or
  2. LDL = Total Cholesterol - HDL - VLDL

IV. Interpretation: Normal

  1. Range: under 160 mg/dl
  2. Normal range dependent on Cardiac Risk Factors

V. Causes: Increased

  1. Primary hyperlipoproteinemia
  2. High fat diet
  3. Acute Myocardial Infarction
  4. Obstructive Liver Disease (Primary biliary Cirrhosis)
  5. Hypothyroidism
  6. Nephrotic Syndrome
  7. Diabetes Mellitus
  8. Anabolic Steroid use
  9. Medications
    1. Progestins
    2. Thiazide Diuretics

VI. Causes: Decreased

  1. Abetalipoproteinemia
  2. Advanced liver disease
  3. Malnutrition

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Related Studies

Ontology: Low-Density Lipoproteins (C0023823)

Definition (NCI) A lipoprotein that carries cholesterol around the body, for use by various cells. LDL transports cholesterol to the arteries and increased levels are associated with atherosclerosis, and thus myocardial infarctions and strokes. This is why cholesterol inside LDL lipoproteins is called bad cholesterol.
Definition (CSP) class of lipoproteins responsible for transport of cholesterol to extrahepatic tissues; they are formed in the circulation when very-low-density lipoproteins are degraded first to intermediate-density lipoproteins and then to LDL by the gain and loss of specific apolipoproteins and the loss of most of their triglycerides; LDL are taken up and catabolized by both the liver and extrahepatic tissues by specific receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Definition (MSH) A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Lipid (T119) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D008077
SnomedCT 22244007
LNC LP15709-6, LP99391-2, LP97901-0, MTHU005011
English beta Lipoproteins, LDL Lipoproteins, Lipoproteins, LDL, Low Density Lipoproteins, Low-Density Lipoproteins, beta-Lipoproteins, Lipoproteins, Low-Density, low density lipoprotein, Lipoproteins, LDL [Chemical/Ingredient], beta lipoprotein, beta lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, ldls, low density lipoprotein (LDL), low density lipoproteins, Lipoprotein.beta, Low density lipoproteins, beta Lipoprotein, LDL, LDL - Low density lipoprotein, Low density lipoprotein, Beta-lipoprotein, Low density lipoprotein (substance), Low Density Lipoprotein
French bêta-Lipoprotéines, Lipoprotéines de basse densité, bêta-Lipoprotéine, Lipoprotéines LDL, LDL (Low-Density Lipoproteins)
Swedish Lipoproteiner, LDL
Czech lipoproteiny LDL
Finnish LDL-lipoproteiinit
Italian Lipoproteine a bassa densità, Beta-lipoproteine, Lipoproteine LDL
Russian BETA-LIPOPROTEIDY, NIZKOI PLOTNOSTI LIPOPROTEINY, LIPOPROTEINY NIZKOI PLOTNOSTI, BETA-LIPOPROTEINY, LIPOPROTEINY, LNP, LIPOPROTEIDY, LNP, БЕТА-ЛИПОПРОТЕИДЫ, БЕТА-ЛИПОПРОТЕИНЫ, ЛИПОПРОТЕИДЫ, ЛНП, ЛИПОПРОТЕИНЫ, ЛНП, ЛИПОПРОТЕИНЫ НИЗКОЙ ПЛОТНОСТИ, НИЗКОЙ ПЛОТНОСТИ ЛИПОПРОТЕИНЫ
Croatian LIPOPROTEINI MALE GUSTOĆE
Polish LDL, Lipoproteiny LDL, Lipoproteiny o niskiej gęstości
Japanese LDLリポ蛋白質, 低密度リポ蛋白質, β-リポタンパク質, ベータリポ蛋白質, 低密度リポタンパク質, 低比重リポ蛋白質, リポ蛋白質-LDL, 低比重リポ蛋白
Spanish lipoproteína beta, lipoproteína de baja densidad (sustancia), lipoproteína de baja densidad, Lipoproteínas de Baja Densidad, betalipoproteínas, Lipoproteínas LDL
German Beta-Lipoproteine, Lipoproteine, LDL-, Low-Density-Lipoproteine
Portuguese beta-Lipoproteínas, Lipoproteínas de Baixa Densidade, Lipoproteínas LDL