II. Precautions: Pitfalls

  1. Consider referred pain (including Neuropathy or radiculopathy)
    1. Referred Hip Pain in children (e.g. SCFE, Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease)
    2. Lumbar Radiculopathy
    3. Sacroiliitis
    4. Proximal Musculoskeletal Injury (e.g. non-displaced Hip Fracture may present with Knee Pain)
  2. Consider malignancy
    1. Osteosarcoma
    2. Chondrosarcoma
    3. Ewing Sarcoma

IV. Causes: Adult Knee Pain by frequency

V. Causes: Pain by location

  1. Anterior Knee Pain
    1. Patellar Subluxation or instability
    2. Osgood Schlatter or Tibial Apophysitis (adolescents)
    3. Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Syndrome or Distal Patellar Apophysitis (adolescents)
    4. Jumper's Knee
    5. Patellofemoral Syndrome
    6. Chondromalacia Patellae
    7. Prepatellar Bursitis
    8. Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis
    9. Hoffa Disease
      1. Infrapatella fat pad tenderness
    10. Osteochondritis Dissecans
    11. Patella Stress Fracture
  2. Posterior Knee Pain
    1. Baker's Cyst
    2. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear
    3. Tear of posterior aspect of meniscus
  3. Medial Knee Pain
    1. Medial Collateral Ligament Tear
    2. Medial Meniscus Tear
    3. Pes Anserine Bursitis
    4. Plica Syndrome
    5. Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (referred pain from hip in adolescents)
  4. Lateral Knee Pain
    1. Knee Lateral Collateral Ligament Tear
    2. Lateral Meniscus Tear
    3. Iliotibial Band Syndrome
  5. Diffuse, atraumatic Knee Pain
    1. See Monoarthritis or Polyarthritis
    2. Osteoarthritis (especially over age 50 years old)
    3. Septic Joint
    4. Acute Gouty Arthritis
    5. Rheumatoid Arthritis

VIII. Imaging: Xray indications

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