II. Physiology

  1. Images
    1. menstrualCycle.png
  2. Background
    1. Steroid Hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary
  3. Synthesis
    1. Follows LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Surge, starting the Luteal Phase (Secretory Phase)
    2. Progesterone is also synthesized in the Adrenal Gland and brain of both males and females
  4. Function
    1. Progesterone contributes to Breast development
      1. Progesterone primarily affects duct and alveolar bud development
      2. Estrogen is the primary Hormone in Breast development
    2. Progesterone prepares the endometrium for a fertilized egg (post-ovulatory, secretory phase)
      1. When the egg is not fertilized, Progesterone levels fall, and the endometrium is sloughed
  5. Synthetics
    1. Progesterones are used in many contraceptives (e.g. Oral Contraceptives, mini pill, IUD, Depo Provera, Implanon)
      1. Progestins inhibit Ovulation
      2. Progestins thicken Cervical Mucus, preventing sperm from reaching the ovum
    2. Synthetic Progestins have Endometrial Activity, but also androgenic, Estrogenic and anti-Estrogenic Activity
      1. See Progestin Androgenic Activity
      2. See Progestin Endometrial Activity
      3. See Progestin Estrogenic Activity

III. Interpretation: Normal Male Levels

  1. Serum Progesterone < 1.0 ng/ml

IV. Interpretation: Normal Female Serum Progesterone Levels

  1. Follicular Phase: 0.1 to 0.8 ng/ml
  2. Luteal Phase: 8 to 33 ng/ml
  3. First Trimester Pregnancy: 15 to 50 ng/ml
  4. Second Trimester Pregnancy: 43 to 179 ng/ml

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