II. Pathophysiology

  1. Mosquitos are a type of biting Diptera (2 winged Insect)
    1. Includes Flies, Gnats, Midges
  2. Bite conditions
    1. Attack exposed skin
    2. Active during cooler times of day, and out of sun
  3. Disease Vector
    1. Malaria
    2. Yellow Fever
    3. Dengue Fever
    4. Rift Valley Fever
    5. EncephalitisArboviruses
      1. California (including LaCrosse) Encephalitis
      2. Saint Louis Encephalitis
      3. Eastern equine Encephalitis
      4. Western equine Encephalitis
      5. West Nile Virus Encephalitis
      6. Japanese Encephalitis

III. Signs: Local reaction

  1. Phase 1:
    1. Immediate wheal forms at bite site
    2. Reaction to:
      1. Histamine in insect Saliva
      2. IgE-mediated reaction to insect Saliva
  2. Phase 2:
    1. Erythematous Papules follow in 2-6 hours
    2. Local swelling
    3. Intense Pruritus

IV. Signs: Hypersensitivity Reaction (Skeeter Syndrome)

  1. Higher risk with chronic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection and Lymphoproliferative syndromes
  2. High Fever
  3. Bullae
  4. Skin necrosis

V. Management

  1. Oral Antihistamines
  2. Cold packs
  3. Calamine lotion
  4. Zyrtec (10 mg qd)
    1. Reduces Pruritus and post-bite Papule
    2. Active for up to 12 hours after taking dose
  5. Topical Anesthetic or Antihistamine
    1. AVOID repeated use
    2. May result in Allergic Contact Dermatitis
  6. Topical Corticosteroids
    1. Slower response compared with other topicals
    2. Beware associated atrophy
      1. Avoid on face and intertriginous areas
      2. Use mild preparations
  7. Homemade remedies (unknown efficacy)
    1. Apply Toothpaste or baking soda paste to area

VI. Prevention

  1. See Prevention of Mosquito Bite
  2. Highly effective prevention in Mosquito exposure
    1. N,N dethyl-m-toluamide (DEET, under 30%)
    2. Permethrin
      1. Spray clothes and bed netting only (not skin)
      2. Permethrin remains despite several washings
      3. Very effective in combination with DEET
  3. Ineffective agents in preventing Mosquito Bites
    1. Vitamin B1
    2. Citronella

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Related Studies

Ontology: Culicidae (C0026584)

Definition (MSHCZE) Čeleď řádu DIPTERA (dvoukřídlí), která zahrnuje moskyty. Larvální stadia jsou vodní, dospělci mohou být rozpoznáni podle charakteristického žilkování na křídlech, šupinek podél žiek na křídlech, a podle dlouhého sosáku. Mnoho druhů má zvláštní význam pro lékařství. R
Definition (MSH) A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic wing venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Definition (CSP) family of the order Diptera that comprises the mosquitoes; recognized by the characteristic wing venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis; many species are of particular medical importance.
Concepts Eukaryote (T204)
MSH D009033
SnomedCT 359768004, 243703005, 58539007, 106785009
English Culicidae, Mosquitoes, Family: Culicidae, Family: Culicidae (organism), Family Culicidae (organism), Family Culicidae, mosquitoe, mosquitos, culicidae, mosquito, Mosquitos, Mosquito, Mosquito (organism), Family culicidae - mosquito, Family culicidae - mosquito (organism), Mosquito, NOS, Mosquito [Ambiguous]
Spanish familia: Culicidae, familia Culicidae (organismo), familia Culicidae, familia: Culicidae (organismo), Culicidae, mosquito, mosquito (organismo), familia culicidae - mosquito (organismo), familia culicidae - mosquito, Zancudos, Mosquitos
French Moustiques, Culicidae, Culicidés
Czech moskyti, komárovití, Culicidae, komáři
Finnish Hyttyset
Italian Zanzare, Culicidae
Croatian Not Translated[Culicidae]
Swedish Culicidae
Polish Culicidae, Komary
Japanese , 蚊科, カ科,
Norwegian Culicidae, Stikkmygg
Portuguese Pernilongos, Culicidae, Mosquitos
German Culicidae, Stechmücken
Dutch Culicidae, Muskieten, Steekmuggen

Ontology: Mosquito bite (C0417744)

Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
SnomedCT 367139001, 242635009, 283344005
Spanish mordedura de mosquito (evento), Picadura de mosquito, mordedura de mosquito (hallazgo), mordedura de mosquito, picadura de mosquito (trastorno), picadura de mosquito
Dutch muggenbeet
French Piqûre de moustique
German Stechmueckenstich
Italian Puntura di zanzara
Portuguese Picada de mosquito
Japanese 蚊咬傷, カコウショウ
English mosquito bites (history), mosquito bites, mosquito bite, Bite;mosquito, Mosquito Bites, Bite of mosquito, Mosquito bite, Mosquito bite (disorder), Bite of mosquito (finding), Bite of mosquito (event)
Czech Komáří bodnutí
Hungarian Szúnyogcsípés