II. Causes: Smooth Tumors - Reactive or Inflammatory

  1. Pyogenic Granuloma
    1. Single, fast growing, friable, Red Papules (most commonly on the lips or Gingival mucosa)
    2. May be pedunculated
  2. Irritation Fibroma
    1. Single smooth dome shaped Papule, typically along the bite line
    2. Caused by chronic irritation of the Oral Mucosa
  3. Lingual Thyroid
    1. Round, smooth red mass, non-tender at posterior Tongue base
    2. Thyroid tissue that arises from thyroglossal duct remnant

III. Causes: Smooth Tumors - Salivary Gland

  1. Mucocele
    1. Mucous filled polyps that form on any of the mucosal surfaces
    2. Typically form on inner lower lip and inner cheek, but also may involve ventral Tongue
  2. Ranula
    1. Translucent mass alongside the frenulum
    2. Submaxillary gland or Sublingual Gland cyst due to duct obstruction
    3. Named for its appearance as a frog belly (Ranula = "little frog")
  3. Neoplasm
    1. Pleomorphic adenoma
    2. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma
    3. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

IV. Causes: Smooth Tumors - Mesenchymal

  1. Neurofibroma
  2. Schwannoma
  3. Lymphoma

V. Causes: Rough Tumors

  1. Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    1. Thick white or red patches, ulcerations or Papules that are typically on the lateral Tongue
  2. Oral Squamous Papilloma (HPV 6, 11)
    1. Single tumors most commonly on the ventral Tongue
    2. Lesions are typically smaller, and not clustered (unlike Condyloma acuminatum)
  3. Condyloma acuminatum (HPV 2, 6, 11, 16 or 18)
    1. Single or multiple dome shaped lesions
    2. Localized to the dorsal Tongue and lingual frenulum

VI. References

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