II. Epidemiology

  1. Bone resorption occurs in nearly all prolonged critically ill patients
  2. Nierman (1998) Chest 114(4): 1122-8 [PubMed]

III. Risk Factors

  1. Corticosteroid use
  2. Limited weight bearing
  3. Vitamin D Deficiency (very common in prolonged ICU admission)
  4. Women over age 60 years

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