III. Efficacy

  1. Low yield test in back disorders

IV. Views: Standard (Includes lower thoracic Vertebrae to Sacrum)

  1. Anterior-Posterior (AP) L-S Spine
    1. Vertical alignment of spinous processes
      1. Rotational injury (unilateral facet dislocation)
      2. Scoliosis
    2. Intervertebral disc space uniformity
    3. Includes Pelvis
      1. Acetabulum and femoral heads
      2. Pelvis degenerative changes
  2. Lateral L-S Spine
    1. Vertebral body
    2. Facet joint
    3. Lordotic curvature of L-S Spine
    4. Intervertebral foramen
    5. Intervertebral disc space height shortening
      1. Lumbosacral disc disease (degenerative)
      2. Spinal Osteomyelitis
    6. Spondylolisthesis (anterior slippage of L5 on S1)

V. Views: Specific (typically low yield)

  1. Oblique L-S Spine (tube angled at 45 degrees)
    1. Neural foramina narrowing
    2. Pars Interarticularis Defect
    3. Spinal Tumor
    4. Facet hypertrophy
    5. Spondylosis
    6. Spondylolysis
    7. Spondylolisthesis
  2. Flexion and extension views
    1. Used to assess ligamentous and bony injury
    2. Contraindications
      1. Other XRay abnormalities are present
      2. Decreased Level of Consciousness

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