II. Epidemiology

  1. Most common type associated with Brachial Birth Trauma

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Upper Roots (C5 to C6) Injury

IV. Signs: Waiter's Tip

  1. Arm adducted and internally rotated
  2. Forearm pronated
  3. Wrist flexed
  4. Finger function and grasp reflex are normal
  5. Moro Reflex and Biceps Reflex absent on affected side
  6. Waiter's Tip position if C7 involvement

V. Prognosis

  1. Fair to good recovery of arm function: 50-80%

VI. References

  1. Goetz (1999) Neurology, Saunders, p. 259
  2. Bower (2001) Clin Fam Pract 3(2):401-27 [PubMed]

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