II. Technique: Tissue Sampling

  1. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA)
  2. Core Needle Biopsy
  3. Biopsy with Needle Guidance (Image-Guided Biopsy)
  4. Biopsy of Palpable Mass
  5. Incisional Biopsy (Surgical Biopsy)
  6. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

III. Types: Breast Cancer

  1. Ductal Carcinoma Type (Most common)
    1. Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia
      1. Premalignant cell growth within the Breast duct cells
      2. Asymptomatic and found on Mammography
      3. High risk lesion increases risk of Breast Cancer 4 to 5 fold
      4. Diagnosed by biopsy and treated with surgical excision
    2. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS, Noninfiltrating Intraductal Carcinoma)
      1. Accounts for 20% of new Breast Cancer diagnoses
      2. Breast duct cells with uncontrolled growth
      3. Basement membrane intact (no spread into surrounding Breast tissues)
      4. Typically asymptomatic and found on Mammography, but may be associated with Nipple Discharge
      5. Detected early, has a low risk of metastasis; delayed diagnosis is associated with invasive ductal carcinoma
    3. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma
      1. Cancer spread through wall of duct and into other Breast tissue
  2. Lobular Carcinoma
    1. Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS)
      1. Not considered a cancer and biopsied lesion will not progress
      2. High risk for future Breast Cancer
    2. Lobular neoplasia

IV. Types: Biomarkers

  1. Estrogen Receptors
  2. Progesterone Receptors
  3. ERBB2 Gene (previously HER2)

V. Grading: Breast Cancer

  1. Grade 1: Well Differentiated
  2. Grade 2: Moderately Differentiated
  3. Grade 3: Poorly Differentiated

VI. Staging: Breast Cancer

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