II. Causes: Infectious causes

III. Causes: Superior Vena Cava Obstruction

  1. See Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
  2. Thoracic aneurysm
  3. Mediastinal cancer
  4. Thrombosis secondary to upper extremity infection
  5. Intraluminal metastasis secondary to hypernephroma

IV. Causes: Increased Capillary Permeability

  1. Acute nephritis
  2. Angioedema (Angioneurotic edema)
  3. Scleroderma

V. Causes: Miscellaneous

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