II. Pathophysiology

  1. Hypercalcemia from excess ingestion alkali and Calcium
    1. Excessive Milk or Calcium supplements
    2. Excessive soluble alkali (absorbable Antacid)
      1. Sodium Bicarbonate
      2. Calcium Carbonate
    3. Potentiated by Vitamin D supplementation
  2. Chronic milk-alkali leads to Renal Insufficiency
    1. Soft tissue calcification of Kidneys
    2. Nephrocalcinosis

III. Signs

IV. Labs

  1. Renal Function
    1. Mildly elevated Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
  2. Electrolytes
    1. Serum Calcium elevated
    2. Serum Phosphorus slightly elevated
  3. Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)
    1. Mild alkalosis

V. Management

  1. Rehydration
  2. Discontinue Calcium supplements
  3. Discontinue alkali (Antacids)

VI. Complications

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