II. Pathophysiology

  1. Communication between Bronchus and pleural cavity

III. Causes

  1. Empyema draining through Bronchus
  2. Lung Abscess invading pleural cavity

IV. Symptoms

  1. Chronic productive cough
  2. Large volume Purulent Sputum

V. Signs

  1. Absent breath sounds on affected side
  2. Tympanic changes on affected side
    1. Dullness to percussion at lung base (Hydrothorax)
    2. Hyperresonant above dull area (Pneumothorax)
  3. Coin Test
  4. Succussion Splash

VI. Diagnosis

  1. Methylene blue injected into pleural cavity
    1. Appears in Sputum

VII. Radiology: Chest XRay

  1. Hydropneumothorax

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