II. Causes

  1. Pulmonary Tuberculosis
  2. Histoplasmosis
  3. Silicosis

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Broncholith perforates
    1. Calcified Lymph Node or Granuloma
  2. Perforation extends from hilar region into Bronchi

IV. Symptoms

  1. Sudden onset cough
  2. Hemoptysis (may be massive)

V. Signs

  1. Hemoptysis may contain Calcium Carbonate fragments
  2. Coarse rhonchi
  3. Fever

VI. Diagnosis

  1. Bronchoscopy
    1. May localize broncholith or perforation site

VII. Radiology: Chest XRay

  1. Distal Bronchus with calcified fragment
  2. Hilar or paratracheal nodes may be calcified

VIII. Course

  1. Pulmonary Hemorrhage from broncholith has been fatal

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