II. Epidemiology

III. Trigger: Pain

  1. Strike body part on falling
  2. Startled

IV. Course

  1. Initial: Stops breathing
  2. Next: Immediate loss of consciousness
  3. Next: Infant becomes limp and pale
  4. Variable: Tonic Seizure, Bradycardia, Asystole >2 sec

V. Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Differential

VI. Management

  1. See Breath Holding Spell
  2. Atropine has been used in refractory cases

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