II. Epidemiology

  1. Typically occurs in girls, at ages 2-5 years old
  2. More common in african american children

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Low Estrogen state at Urethra and vagina

IV. Symptoms

  1. Urethral bleeding
  2. Dysuria
  3. Provocative
    1. Valsalva Maneuver (Constipation, cough)

V. Signs

  1. Urethra appears beefy red and friable

VII. Management

  1. Manual reduction is NOT needed
  2. Treat Constipation
  3. Apply daily a small amount olf Topical Estrogen (e.g. Premarin Cream, Estrace Cream) to Urethral area
    1. Similar management as Labial Fusion

VIII. References

  1. Claudius and Willner in Herbert (2019) EM:Rap 19(1): 2-4

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies