II. General

  1. Healthy development requirements
    1. Prolonged supportive environment
    2. Graded steps toward autonomy
  2. Other factors assisting in healthy development
    1. Positive engagement between adolescents and adults
    2. School and community programs

III. Physiology: Early Adolescence

  1. Developmental findings
    1. Preoccupation with body changes
    2. High levels of Physical Activity and mood swings
    3. Concrete thinking
  2. Physician approach
    1. Brings up sensitive issues (e.g. Tobacco, Alcohol, drugs, sex)
    2. Gives clear advice to both the patient and their parents
  3. Parental approach
    1. Offers a high level of supervision

IV. Physiology: Mid-Adolescence

  1. Developmental findings
    1. Independence
    2. Peer Group dominates social life
    3. Experimentation
      1. Risk behaviors more prevalent
      2. Sexual matters receive most interest
  2. Physician approach
    1. Endorse good behaviors and discourage bad behaviors
  3. Parental approach
    1. Allows experimentation but within limits and with coaching

V. Physiology: Late-Adolescence

  1. Developmental findings
    1. Independently seeks health advice
    2. Understands consequences of actions
    3. Appear to be adults
      1. Future orientation
      2. Mutual caring
      3. Internal control
    4. Uncertainties
      1. Sexuality
      2. Future relationships
      3. Work possibilities
  2. Physician approach
    1. Encourages independent health care access
    2. Protects confidentiality
    3. Approaches patient as an adult
  3. Parental approach
    1. Allows for independent health care visits
    2. Available and supportive

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