II. Causes: Most common

  1. Adults
    1. Cholelithiasis, Choledocholithiasis or Gallstone Pancreatitis (Up to 60-70% of cases in the United States)
    2. Chronic Alcohol Abuse (35% of cases)
      1. Alcoholics also suffer from gallstone Pancreatitis (Ultrasound for Gallstones)
    3. Hypertriglyceridemia (10% of cases)
  2. Children
    1. Infection (e.g. Mumps, Viral Hepatitis, Coxsackievirus, Ascariasis, Mycoplasma)
    2. Abdominal Trauma (e.g. handlebar injury)

III. Causes: Gastrointestinal

  1. Cholelithiasis or Gallstone Pancreatitis (up to 60-70% of cases in the United States)
  2. Abdominal Trauma or surgery
  3. Following Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
  4. Peptic Ulcer perforation
  5. Hereditary Pancreatitis
  6. Pancreas divisum
  7. Ampulla of Vater Obstructed (e.g. Regional Enteritis)
  8. Sphincter of odi dysfunction
  9. Abdominal Trauma (1.5% of cases)
  10. Pancreatic Ductal Carcinoma

IV. Causes: Endocrine

  1. Hypertriglyceridemia (esp. if Triglycerides >500-1000, may be related to uncontrolled or undiagnosed Diabetes)
  2. Hypercalcemia (e.g. hypervitaminosis D, Hyperparathyroidism, Total Parenteral Nutrition)
  3. Renal Failure
  4. Cystic Fibrosis (Chronic Pancreatitis)
  5. Hemochromatosis (Chronic Pancreatitis)

V. Causes: Infection

VI. Causes: Medications and toxins (<2% of cases)

  1. See Medication Causes of Pancreatitis
  2. Alcohol Abuse or Alcoholic Pancreatitis (35% of cases)
  3. Toxins include Snake Bites and Scorpion bites

VII. Causes: Vasculitis

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