II. Definitions

  1. Triglyceride
    1. Lipid composed of three molecules of Fatty Acid esterified to glycerol
    2. Triglycerides are a non-polar fat synthesized from Carbohydrates or ingested
    3. Triglycerides are High Energy Molecules that are stored for later use in animal adipose cells (fat cells)
  2. Diglyceride
    1. Lipid composed of two Fatty Acid chains esterified to glycerol
  3. Monoglyceride
    1. Lipid composed of a single Fatty Acid chain esterified to glycerol
  4. Phosphoglyceride
    1. Diglyceride with the one free OH group on glycerol attached to a phosphate (Phosphatidate)
    2. Phosphate in turn is attached to serine, Ethanolamine, choline or Inositol
    3. Includes Phosphatidyl Serine, Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine, Phosphatidyl choline, Phosphatidyl Inositol

III. Interpretation: Serum Triglycerides

  1. Normal: <150 mg/dl
  2. High: 150 to 499 mg/dl
  3. Severe: >=500 mg/dl

IV. Causes: Increased Triglycerides (Secondary Hypertriglyceridemia Causes)

  1. Pregnancy (Estrogen Mediated)
  2. Alcohol Abuse
  3. Acute Myocardial Infarction
  4. Pancreatitis
  5. Nephrotic Syndrome
  6. Chronic Renal Insufficiency
  7. Acute intermittent porphyria
  8. Endocrine Disease
    1. Obesity
    2. Metabolic Syndrome
    3. Diabetes Mellitus
    4. Hypothyroidism
    5. Cushing's Syndrome
    6. Hypopituitarism
  9. Medications
    1. Atypical Antipsychotics
    2. Beta Blockers
    3. Bile Binding Resin
    4. Exogenous Estrogens
    5. Glucocorticoids
    6. Immunosuppressants
    7. Isotretinoin
    8. Protease Inhibitors
    9. Thiazide Diuretics
    10. Ticlopidine (Ticlid)
  10. Genetic Syndromes
    1. Glycogen Storage Disease
    2. Hyperlipoproteinemia (types I, IIb, III, IV, and V)
    3. Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia
    4. Familial Hypertriglyceridemia
    5. Familial Dysbetalipoproteinemia
    6. Familial Hypoalphalipoproteinemia
    7. Familial Hyperchylomicronemia

V. Causes: Decreased Triglycerides

  1. Malnutrition
  2. Abetalipoproteinemia
  3. Medications
    1. Gemfibrozil
    2. Nicotinic Acid
    3. Clofibrate
    4. Omega 3 Fatty Acids

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Related Studies

Ontology: Triglycerides (C0041004)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Too much of this type of fat may raise the risk of coronary artery disease, especially in women.

A blood test measures your triglycerides along with your cholesterol. Normal triglyceride levels are below 150. Levels above 200 are high.

Factors that can raise your triglyceride level include

  • Being overweight
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Smoking
  • Excessive alcohol use
  • A very high carbohydrate diet
  • Certain diseases and medicines
  • Some genetic disorders

You may be able to lower your triglycerides with a combination of losing weight, diet, and exercise. You also may need to take medicine to lower your triglycerides.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Definition (NCI_CRCH) Lipid composed of three fatty acids bonded to glycerol (Wardlaw, et al.).
Definition (NCI) Fats composed of three fatty acid chains linked to a glycerol molecule.
Definition (CSP) compound consisting of three moleules of fatty acid esterified to glycerol; a neutral fat synthesized from carbohydrates for storage in animal adipose cells.
Concepts Lipid (T119) , Biologically Active Substance (T123)
MSH D014280
SnomedCT 85600001
LNC LP15275-8, LP32173-4, MTHU003166
English Triacylglycerols, Triglycerides, Triglycerides [Chemical/Ingredient], triglycerides, triacylglycerols, triglyceride, triacylglycerol, Triacylglycerol, Triglyceride, TG - Triglyceride, Triacylglycerol (substance), TRIGLYCERIDES
Swedish Triglycerider
Czech triacylglycerol, triglyceridy, triacylglyceroly
Finnish Triglyseridit
Italian Triacilglicerolo, Triacilgliceroli, Trigliceridi
Russian TRIGLITSERIDY, TRIATSILGLITSERINY, ТРИАЦИЛГЛИЦЕРИНЫ, ТРИГЛИЦЕРИДЫ
Japanese トリアシルグリセロール, トリグリセリド, トリグリセライド
Croatian TRIGLICERIDI
Polish Trójglicerydy, Triglicerydy, Triacyloglicerole
Portuguese Triglicéridos, Triglicérides, Triglicerídios, Triacilgliceróis, Triacilglicerol, Triglicerídeos
Spanish triacilglicerol, triglicérido (sustancia), triglicérido, Triacilgliceroles, Triacilglicerol, Triglicéridos
French Triglycéride
German Triacylglycerine, Triglyceride, Triacylglycerol

Ontology: Serum Triglyceride Measurement (C0542495)

Definition (NCI) A quantitative measurement of the amount of triglycerides present in a sample of serum.
Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
SnomedCT 166851006, 144121005, 144128004, 166845001, 271245006
LNC LP145986-8
English Serum triglycerides, Serum triglycerides NOS, Serum Triglyceride Measurement, serum triglyceride measurement (lab test), serum triglyceride measurement, serum triglycerides, serum triglyceride, triglycerides serum, serum triglyceride test, triglyceride serum, Triglyceride.serum, Serum triglycerides (& level), Serum triglycerides (& level) (procedure), Serum triglycerides NOS (procedure), Triglycerides - serum, Serum Triglycerides Test, Serum triglyceride levels, Measurement of serum triglyceride level (procedure), Measurement of serum triglyceride level
Dutch serum triglyceriden
French Triglycérides sériques
German Triglyzeride im Serum
Italian Trigliceridi sierici
Portuguese Triglicéridos séricos
Spanish Triglicéridos en suero, determinación de niveles séricos de TG, medición sérica del nivel de triglicéridos, medición del nivel de triglicéridos en suero, medición sérica del nivel de triglicéridos (procedimiento), medición del nivel de triglicéridos en suero (procedimiento), medición sérica del nivel de TG, Serum triglycerides NOS, determinación sérica de triglicéridos, SAI, determinación sérica de triglicéridos, SAI (procedimiento), determinación de niveles séricos de triglicéridos
Japanese 血清トリグリセリド, ケッセイトリグリセリド
Czech Sérové triglyceridy
Hungarian Szérum trigliceridek