II. Mechanism: Injury

  1. Falls (75-85%)
  2. Collisions (11-20%)
  3. Lift Injuries (2-9%)

III. Risk Factors: Injury

  1. Age <20 years old and >40 years old
  2. Beginner Skier or Snowboarder
    1. Injuries are three times more common
    2. However expert skiers have more serious injuries (head injuries, Fractures, ligament injuries)
  3. Snow conditions
    1. Hard-packed snow (contrast with powder)
  4. Other factors
    1. Failing to take rest breaks (with secondary Fatigue or dehydration)
    2. Skier or snowboarder participates in activities (and risks) above their ability
    3. Equipment failure (or improper)
    4. Failure to acclimitize to altitude
    5. Going off trail, to closed areas, or ignoring posted warnings

IV. Associated Conditions: Head and Torso Injuries

  1. Head Injury (7-18%)
    1. Most common cause of serious injury and death
  2. Chest Trauma
    1. Rib Fracture
    2. Pneumothorax
    3. Hemothorax
  3. Thoracolumbar spine injury
    1. Spinal Compression Fracture
    2. Spinous process Fracture
    3. Transverse process Fracture

V. Associated Conditions: Skiers (lower extremity injuries are more common)

  1. Knee Injury
    1. See Knee Injury in Downhill Skiing
    2. Medial Collateral Ligament Tear or MCL (25%)
    3. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear or ACL (25%)
    4. Meniscal tear
    5. Segond Fracture
    6. Reverse Segond Fracture
    7. Tibial Spine Avulsion (rare)
    8. Tibial Plateau Fracture
  2. Head Injury
  3. Facial Trauma
  4. Shoulder Injury
    1. Rotator Cuff Tear
    2. Anterior Shoulder Dislocation
    3. Acromioclavicular Separation (AC Separation)
    4. Clavicle Fracture
    5. Other strains and sprain
      1. Trapezius Strain
      2. Biceps Strain
      3. Sternoclavicular Separation
    6. Other Fractures (uncommon)
      1. Proximal Humerus Fracture
      2. Humeral Head Fracture
      3. Greater tuberosity Fracture
      4. Glenoid Fracture
      5. Scapular Fracture
      6. Acromial Fracture
  5. Thumb Injury
    1. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Sprain (Skier's Thumb)
      1. Occurs with fall on an Outstretched Hand (FOOSH) attached to a ski strap

VI. Associated Conditions: Snowboarders (upper extremity injuries are more common)

VII. References

  1. Dolbec (2019) Crit Dec Emerg Med 33(1): 17-25

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Ontology: Skiing (recreational activity) (C0037264)

Definition (MSH) A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.
Concepts Daily or Recreational Activity (T056)
MSH D012865
SnomedCT 45033006
English Skiing, Engaged in skiing, Skiing (recreational activity), skiing, Skiing, Snow, Skiings, Snow, Snow Skiing, Snow Skiings, Skiing (qualifier value), Engaged in skiing (qualifier value), Engaged in skiing, function (observable entity)
Swedish Skidåkning
Czech lyžování
Finnish Hiihto
Russian LYZHI, ЛЫЖИ
Japanese スキー
Spanish Esquí, práctica de esquí (calificador), práctica de esquí
Croatian SKIJANJE
Polish Narciarstwo
Portuguese Esqui na Neve, Surf na Neve, Esqui
French Ski
German Skilaufen
Italian Sci
Dutch Skiën

Ontology: Skier (C0425040)

Concepts Finding (T033)
SnomedCT 138290000, 160971008
English skier, skiers, Skier, Skier (finding)
Spanish esquiador (hallazgo), esquiador

Ontology: Snow Sports (C1136196)

Definition (MSH) Sports activities in the snow.
Concepts Daily or Recreational Activity (T056)
MSH D038161
Swedish Vintersporter
Czech sporty na sněhu
Finnish Talviurheilu
Russian SPORT NA SNEZHNOM POKROVE, СПОРТ НА СНЕЖНОМ ПОКРОВЕ
Japanese 雪上スポーツ, スノーモービリング, ソリ滑り, スノースポーツ, スポーツ-雪上, スポーツ-セツジョウ
Croatian Not Translated[Snow Sports]
French Sports d'hiver, Sports de neige
Polish Sporty zimowe
Spanish Deportes en la Nieve, Deportes de Nieve
Portuguese Esportes de Neve, Esportes na Neve
English Snow Sport, Snow Sports, Sport, Snow, Sports, Snow
German Wintersport
Italian Sport invernali
Dutch Sporten in de sneeuw, Sporten, winter-, Wintersporten

Ontology: Snowboarding (activity) (C1138838)

Concepts Daily or Recreational Activity (T056)
MSH D012865
SnomedCT 102393008
Portuguese Snowboarding
English Engaged in snowboarding, Snowboarding (activity), snowboarding, Snowboarding (qualifier value), Engaged in snowboarding (qualifier value), Engaged in snowboarding, function (observable entity), Snowboarding
Spanish Snowboard, práctica de snowboarding (calificador), práctica de snowboarding
German Snowboarding
French Snowboard, Surf des neiges
Italian Snowboarding, Snowboard
Czech jízda na snowboardu
Dutch Snowboarden