II. Epidemiology

  1. Represents 17% of Oral Lesions
  2. Prevalence
    1. Palatal: 20-35%
    2. Mandibular: 7-10%
  3. Peaks over age 30 years
  4. More common in women
  5. Hereditary

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Common developmental exostosis (cortical outgrowth) onset as teen, and grows as an adult

IV. Signs

  1. Bony, Lobulated outgrowth
  2. Distribution
    1. Palatal Torus
      1. Midline of Hard Palate
    2. Mandibular Torus
      1. Lingual aspect of Mandible (under Tongue)

V. Differential Diagnosis

  1. Nodule not in the midline Hard Palate suggests other diagnosis (evaluate for cancer)

VI. Management

  1. Benign and requires no treatment
  2. Indication for surgical resection
    1. Difficult to fit dentures and other oral appliances
    2. Chronic, recurrent irritation or ulceration with hard food intake
    3. Bone graft harvesting for dental surgery

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies

Ontology: Torus mandibularis (disorder) (C0266980)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD10 M27.0
SnomedCT 11625007
English torus mandibularus, torus mandibularus (diagnosis), Torus mandibularis (disorder), mandibulari torus, torus mandibularis, Torus mandibularis, Lingual torus
Spanish torus lingual, torus mandibular (trastorno), torus mandibularis, torus mandibular

Ontology: Torus palatinus (C0266981)

Concepts Anatomical Abnormality (T190)
ICD10 M27.0
SnomedCT 46752004
English torus palatinus (diagnosis), torus palatinus, Crista palatina, Palatine torus, Torus palatinus, torus palatinus of hard palate, torus palatinus of hard palate (physical finding), torus palatine, palatine torus, palatal torus, Palatinus torus, Palatal torus, Torus palatinus (disorder)
Czech Výrůstek patra
Dutch torus palatinus
French Torus palatin
German Palatinus torus
Hungarian Szájpad dudor
Italian Toro palatino
Japanese 口蓋隆起, コウガイリュウキ
Portuguese Crista palatina
Spanish Palatino con protuberancia, torus palatino, torus palatinus (trastorno), torus palatinus

Ontology: Mandibular torus (C1184914)

Concepts Body Location or Region (T029)
English Torus mandibularis, Mandibular torus
Czech Výrůstek dolní čelisti
Dutch torus mandibularis
French Torus mandibulaire
German Torus mandibularis
Hungarian Mandibularis dudor
Italian Toro mandibolare
Japanese カガクリュウキ, 下顎隆起
Portuguese Toro mandibular
Spanish Torus mandibular