II. Definition

  1. Primarily sexual and reproductive changes in aging male

III. Epidemiology

  1. Age of onset: 40-70 years old
    1. Decline typically starts after age 40 years old
  2. Prevalence in U.S. (1990): 35 Million men
  3. Prevalence in U.S. (predicted for 2010): 54 Million men
  4. Testosterone decreases after age 30 years
  5. Testosterone is deficient in 86% of men by age 80

IV. Physiology: Changes with aging

  1. Erection
    1. Erection takes 2-3 times longer
    2. Prolonged refractory phase
    3. Partially lost Erection difficult to return to full
  2. Ejaculation
    1. Decreased force of ejaculation
    2. Decreased awareness of ejaculation
  3. Testosterone
    1. Serum Testosterone decreases for age over 50 years
      1. Hypogonadism in 20% of men over age 60 years
      2. Hypogonadism in 50% of men over age 80 years
    2. Testosterone Levels drop 1% per year ages 40-70 years
  4. Body Composition
    1. Decreased Lean Body Mass/decreased strength
    2. Upper and central body fat increases with age

VI. Labs

  1. See Male Hypogonadism
  2. Total Serum Testosterone <300 ng/dl (in the morning, or 2 within 2 hours of awakening)
    1. Ruled out if Testosterone >400 ng/dl
    2. Recheck a second value to confirm low Testosterone
  3. Free Testosterone (Bioavailable Testosterone) testing indications
    1. Most accurate measure
    2. Low SHBG (Obesity, Type II Diabetes, Hypothyroidism)
    3. High SHBG (Older age)
    4. Wide variation in accuracy among labs
  4. Consider evaluation for secondary cause
    1. See Testicular Failure
    2. Always obtain serum pituitary markers when Serum Testosterone is <150 ng/dl (expert endocrinology opinion)
    3. Indications to evaluate for pituitary tumor
      1. Serum Prolactin high
      2. Serum LH low
      3. Serum FSH low
    4. Consider other conditions causing low Testosterone
      1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
      2. Major Depression
      3. Significant acute illness
    5. References
      1. Young (2012) Mayo POIM Conference, Rochester
      2. Bhasin (2010) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95(6):2536-59 [PubMed]

VII. Associated Conditions

VIII. Management: Androgen Replacement

  1. See Androgen Replacement
  2. Precautions
    1. Androgen Replacement is not FDA approved for typical age related Testosterone decrease
    2. Approved for other causes of Male Hypogonadism (e.g. Chemotherapy, infection, Pituitary Lesion)
  3. Transdermal agents are preferred
  4. Baseline exam prior to starting replacement
    1. See Androgen Replacement
    2. Digital Prostate exam
    3. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
    4. Complete Blood Count (or Hematocrit)

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Related Studies

Ontology: Andropause (C0232984)

Definition (MSH) An endocrine state in men, characterized by a significant decline in the production of TESTOSTERONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and other hormones such as HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE. Andropause symptoms are related to the lack of androgens including DEPRESSION, sexual dysfunction, and OSTEOPOROSIS. Andropause may also result from hormonal ablation therapy for malignant diseases.
Concepts Finding (T033)
MSH D047649
SnomedCT 41982003
Dutch mannelijk climacterium, andropauze, Andropauze
German Klimakterium des Mannes, Andropause, Wechseljahre, männliche
Italian Climaterio maschile, Andropausa
Spanish Climaterio masculino, andropausia (hallazgo), andropausia, climaterio masculino, Andropausia
Swedish Andropaus
French Climatère chez l'homme, Andropause, Climatère masculin
Japanese ダンセイコウネンキ, 更年期-男性, 男子更年期, 男性更年期
Czech andropauza, Mužské klimakterium, Andropauza
Finnish Andropaussi
English andropause, male climacteric, Climacteric, Male, Male climacteric, Male climacteric (finding), Male climacterium, Andropause, Change of Life, Male
Polish Andropauza
Hungarian Andropauza, Férfi klimaktérium
Norwegian Andropause, Mannens overgangsalder
Portuguese Andropausa

Ontology: Male Menopause (C1456659)

Concepts Physiologic Function (T039)
English Menopause, Male, Male Menopause