II. Mechanism

  1. Anabolic Steroids are Testosterone derivatives
  2. Performance enhancing drugs that that increase muscle Protein synthesis
  3. Short term effects: Increased strength and increased Lean Body Mass

III. Epidemiology

  1. Banned by most athletic organizations (NCAA, IOC)
  2. DEA Controlled Substance (Schedule III)
  3. Black market sales: $2 Million per year in U.S.
  4. Prevalence of Anabolic Steroid use
    1. Buckley (1988) 6.6% High School (38% before age 15)
    2. Tennant (1986): 75% of NFL lineman
    3. Rumor (1996) 95% of NFL Lineman

IV. Indications: Medical

V. Efficacy

  1. Athletes dose 10 to 40 times higher than medical dose
  2. Effective in strength gain (short-term)
    1. Rapid strength and anaerobic power gain
    2. Rapid gain in lean Muscle mass and weight
    3. Maintenance of competitive edge
    4. Benefit only with Resistance Training program

VI. Adverse Effects: General

  1. Associated with premature death (esp. from Suicide, Myocardial Infarction)
  2. Tendon ruptures from dysplastic Collagen changes
  3. Adolescents
    1. Early closing of bone Growth Plates
    2. Decreased adult height
  4. Cardiovascular changes
    1. Hypertension
      1. Grace (2003) J Sci Med Sport 6(3):307-12 [PubMed]
    2. Acute Cardiovascular events (Platelet aggregation)
      1. Stroke
      2. Myocardial Infarction
    3. Hypercholesterolemia with marked HDL drop (<10)
      1. Hartgens (2004) Br J Sports Med 38(3): 253-9 [PubMed]
  5. Liver disease
    1. Increased liver Aminotransferases
    2. Hepatic failure
    3. Peliosis (rare hemorrhagic Liver Cysts)
    4. Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    5. Hepatic Adenoma
    6. Hepatic cholangiocarcinoma
  6. Psychiatric: Steroid Psychosis ('Steroid Rage')
    1. Aggressiveness
    2. Irritability
    3. Impulsiveness
    4. Impaired judgment
    5. Mania and paranoid Delusions
    6. Addiction potential and withdrawal potential

VII. Adverse Effects: Sexual Effects

  1. Libido changes
  2. Severe Cystic Acne
  3. Specific changes in men (may be irreversible)
    1. Decreased sperm production
    2. Testicular atrophy
    3. Scrotal Pain
    4. Gynecomastia (potentially irreversible)
    5. Prostate Cancer increased risk
  4. Specific changes in women
    1. Voice deepening (irreversible)
    2. Hirsutism (potentially irreversible)
    3. Acne Vulgaris
    4. Clitoral hypertrophy (potentially irreversible)
    5. Amenorrhea
    6. Male-pattern baldness
    7. Coarsening of skin (potentially irreversible)

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Ontology: Anabolic steroids (C0002744)

Definition (CHV) a natural or synthetic steroid that promotes bone and muscle growth
Definition (CHV) a natural or synthetic steroid that promotes bone and muscle growth
Definition (CHV) a natural or synthetic steroid that promotes bone and muscle growth
Definition (CHV) a natural or synthetic steroid that promotes bone and muscle growth
Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed puberty, and muscle loss from some diseases.

Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using them this way is not legal or safe. Abuse of anabolic steroids has been linked with many health problems. They include

  • Acne
  • Breast growth and shrinking of testicles in men
  • Voice deepening and growth of facial hair in women
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart problems, including heart attack
  • Liver disease, including cancer
  • Kidney damage
  • Aggressive behavior

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Definition (NCI) Synthetic derivatives of the male hormone, androgen, that promote tissue growth by increasing the metabolic processes involved with protein synthesis and are used to promote weight gain in wasting diseases. They are used by bodybuilders and athletes to increase muscle mass, strength, and stamina.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A type of steroid that is used in medicine to repair body tissues and to increase appetite and the growth of muscles. Anabolic steroids are made in the laboratory from testosterone (a male hormone).
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Steroid (T110)
SnomedCT 111151007, 126175007
LNC LP17877-9, LP31464-8, MTHU019429
English anabolics, anabolics (medication), Anabolic - androgenic steroids, anabolic steroids, anabolic, anabolics steroids, anabolic steroid drug, Anabolic Steroids, Anabolic-androgenic steroids, Steroids, Anabolic, ANABOLIC STEROIDS, anabolic steroid, Anabolic steroid (substance), Anabolic steroid preparation (product), Anabolic steroid preparation, Anabolic steroid, Anabolic steroid, NOS, Anabolic steroid preparation (substance), Anabolic steroids, Anabolic Steroid, Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
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