II. Causes

  1. Shoulder Dislocation
  2. Upward pressure from improper crutch use
  3. Repetitive overuse (pitching, swimming)
  4. Surgery (arthroscopy, rotator cuff repair)

III. Symptoms

  1. Arm Fatigue on throwing and other overhead activities
  2. Posterolateral upper arm Paresthesias may occur

IV. Signs

  1. Weak abduction and external rotation at the Shoulder

V. Diagnostics

  1. Nerve Conduction Studies and EMG
    1. Consider repeating at 3-6 months after treatment
  2. Shoulder MRI
    1. Typically only helpful for evaluation of differential diagnosis (e.g. labral disorder)
    2. Compression of axillary nerve is unlikely to be visualized on MRI

VI. Management

  1. Shoulder Range of Motion Exercises with posterior capsule Stretching
  2. Avoid heavy lifting
  3. Sport specific biomechanical modification to prevent reinjury

VII. Course

  1. Anticipate a 3-6 month course with therapy

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