III. History: Habits

  1. Tobacco Cessation
    1. Associated with 4600 U.S. perinatal deaths per year
  2. Alcohol abstention
  3. Illicit Drug use Cessation
  4. Sexuality
  5. Intimate Partner Violence
  6. Nutrition in Pregnancy
  7. Exercise in Pregnancy
  8. Wear Seat Belts (three point Seat Belt)
  9. Relaxation Positions
    1. Incline
      1. Lie back with head and back against incline chair
      2. Pillow under hips and behind head and neck
    2. Semi-prone
      1. Prone or slightly on side propped up
      2. Pillows under one hip and head
      3. One knee flexed to assist in propping
  10. Activities to avoid
    1. Avoid hot tubs and saunas (increased Miscarriages and Neural Tube Defects)
    2. Avoid hair treatments (unknown effect)

IV. Symptoms

  1. Discomforts to expect
    1. Fatigue
    2. Nausea or Vomiting
  2. Symptoms prompting urgent evaluation
    1. Vaginal Bleeding
    2. Abdominal Cramping

V. Labs

  1. Weeks 8 to 18
    1. Obstetric Ultrasound for dating and surveillance
  2. Aneuploidy Screening and Neural Tube Defect Screening
    1. See Aneuploidy Screening
    2. Requires education starting in first trimester
    3. First trimester screening (Nuchal Translucency, Free bHCG, PAPPA) at 9-11 weeks
    4. Second trimester screening (AFP, uE3, HCG, Inhibin) at 15-19 weeks
  3. Advanced Testing for women for over 35 years (or abnormal screening results)
    1. Chorionic Villus Sampling at 9 to 13 weeks
    2. Amniocentesis at 16 to 18 weeks

VI. Prevention: Neural Tube and other congenital defects

  1. See Nutrition in Pregnancy
  2. Prenatal Vitamins with Folic Acid 400 mcg (600 Dietary Folate Equivalents or DFE) per day
    1. Reduce risk of Neural Tube Defect
  3. Limit Vitamin A intake to under 8000 IU qd
    1. Over 15000 IU/day Vitamin A associated with defects

VII. Prevention: Infectious agents to avoid (and to notify provider if exposure occurs)

  1. Toxoplasmosis
  2. Listeria
  3. Varicella
  4. Parvovirus B19

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