II. Definitions

  1. Ataxia
    1. Failure to produce smooth intentional movements (Incoordination)
  2. Disequilibrium
    1. Disturbance of postural balance
  3. Dyskinesia
    1. Difficulty performing voluntary movement
    2. Includes hyperkinesia (too much movement) and hypokinesia (too little movement)

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Ataxia is a Movement Disorder (in the hyperkinesia sub-category)
  2. Cerebellar lesions affect the ipsilateral body
  3. Mechanisms by which Cerebellum coordinates movement
    1. Vestibular system inputs (head position in relation to body)
    2. Visual cortex
    3. Extremity proprioception

IV. Causes: Cerebellar or Central Nervous System

  1. Cerebellar lesion or neoplasm
  2. Intracranial Hemorrhage
    1. Arteriovenous Malformation (even without bleeding)
    2. Cerebellar Hemorrhage
  3. Cerebrovascular Disease
    1. Cerebellar infarction
    2. Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency
    3. Vertebral Artery Dissection
  4. Infection
    1. Meningoencephalitis
    2. Cerebellar Abscess
    3. Viral Cerebellitis (children)
      1. See Ataxia in Children
      2. Acute Demyelinating Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
      3. Acute Cerebellar Ataxia
  5. Post-infectious
    1. Acute Cerebellar Ataxia
    2. Guillain-Barre (or Miller Fisher Syndrome variant)

V. Causes: Extra-cerebellar or systemic

VI. Causes: Anatomic

  1. Frontal Lobe Lesion (affects cortico-cerebellar connections)
    1. Frontal Lobe lesions or neoplasms (e.g. meningioma, glioma)
      1. Frontal Ataxia may present with falling backwards
      2. Associated with Perseveration, Incontinence and slowed thinking
    2. Anterior Cerebral Artery syndrome
      1. Results in ischemic Frontal Lobe stroke
    3. Hydrocephalus (e.g. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus)
      1. Frontal horns of the Lateral Ventricles enlarge and affect leg-related fibers
      2. Associated with Memory Loss and Incontinence
  2. Sub-cortical Lesion (affects cortico-cerebellar connections and pyramidal tracts)
    1. Multiple Cerebrovascular Accidents
      1. Associated with emotional lability, Dysarthria and Dementia
    2. Ataxic Hemiparesis
      1. Lacunar Infarct in the Internal Capsule or pons
  3. Brainstem Lesion (affects cerebellar tracts)
    1. Cerebrovascular Accident
    2. Multiple Sclerosis
  4. Cerebellar Lesions
    1. See Cerebellar causes above (e.g. Cerebellar Hemorrhage, Cerebellar infarction, Cerebellar Neoplasm)
    2. Spinocerebellar Degeneration (e.g. Friedrich's Ataxia)
    3. Alcoholism (chronic Alcoholic Cerebellar Degeneration or Acute Thiamine Deficiency)
    4. Acute cerebrellitis (viral or post-viral)
  5. Spinal cord (affects Posterior Columns or pyramidal tracts)
    1. Cervical Spondylosis
      1. Cervical Myelopathy with neck and arm pain
    2. Multiple Sclerosis
    3. Vitamin B12 Deficiency
      1. Affects Posterior Columns and lateral columns
      2. Progresses from generalized weakness and Paresthesias to leg stiffness and Ataxia
    4. Syringomyelia
    5. Spinal cord tumor
    6. Spinocerebellar degeneration
    7. Tabes Dorsalis (Tertiary Syphilis)
    8. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
  6. Peripheral Nerve (affects dorsal roots and polyneuritis)
    1. Guillain-Barre Syndrome
  7. Muscle (affects Muscle Weakness)
    1. Myopathy (e.g. Polymyositis, Hypothyroidism, Muscular Dystrophy)
    2. Acute Muscle-related causes of Ataxia
      1. Toxins (see above)
      2. Sickle Cell Crisis
      3. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    3. Chronic rare Muscle-related causes of Ataxia
      1. Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
      2. Ramsey Hunt Syndrome
      3. Huntington's Chorea

VII. Symptoms

  1. Ataxia-related chief complaints
    1. Dizziness
    2. Weakness
    3. Incoordination
    4. Falls
    5. Fine motor or gross motor difficulties

VIII. Precautions

  1. Confirm with patient and family what changes are new

IX. Exam

  1. Cranial Nerve Exam
  2. Motor Exam
  3. Alternating hand movements
    1. See Rapid Alternating Movements (Diadochokinesia)
  4. Gait Exam
    1. Observe for listing or falling to one side (Cerebellar Gait)
    2. Also observe for falling to one side while sitting with eyes open (truncal Ataxia)
    3. See Gait and Balance Evaluation in the Elderly
    4. See Gait Evaluation in Children
  5. Coordination testing
    1. Observe for for dysmetria, overshooting target or Intention Tremor
    2. Finger-Nose-Finger
    3. Heel-Knee-Shin
  6. Proprioception (Peripheral Nerve or sensory deficit)
    1. Romberg Sign
  7. Vestibular Exam
    1. See Nystagmus
    2. Observe for opsoclonus (rapid, jerking saccades of the eyes independent of head position changes)
  8. Speech Exam
    1. Listen for halting, hesitancy or garbled speech
    2. Listen for scanning speech (breaking up words on their syllables)

X. Signs

  1. Cerebellar Gait
    1. Staggering, wide-based, unsteady gait
  2. Dysmetria
    1. Abnormal Finger-Nose-Finger
    2. Typically seen in hemispherical lesions
  3. Truncal Ataxia
    1. Unable to sit or stand without support
    2. Due to midline cerebellar disease (vermis)
  4. Dysdiadochokinesia (DDK)
    1. Inability to perform Rapid Alternating Movements
  5. Proprioception disorder
  6. Abnormal Nystagmus

XI. Imaging

  1. Indications for emergent imaging
    1. Acute Ataxia (onset within prior 72 hours)
    2. Altered Level of Consciousness
    3. Asymmetric or focal neurologic deficits (including Cranial Nerve deficits)
    4. Traumatic Injury
  2. CT Head
    1. Mass effect suspected
    2. Hydrocephalus
    3. Intracranial Hemorrhage
    4. Acute Head Injury
  3. MRI Brain
    1. Most cases of Pediatric Ataxia
    2. Posterior fossa lesion suspected
    3. Chronic Ataxia

XII. Diagnostics

  1. Lumbar Puncture
    1. Indicated for suspected CNS Infection
    2. Obtain CNS Imaging first if any concern for mass lesion
  2. Toxicology Screening (including Blood Alcohol Level)
    1. Highest yield in children with Ataxia
  3. Pulmonary Function Tests
    1. Guillain-Barre Syndrome suspected

XIII. Management

  1. Neurology Consultation
  2. Emergent neurosurgery Consultation indications
    1. Cerebellar Hemorrhage
    2. Cerebellar infarction
    3. Obstructive Hydrocephalus
  3. Empiric medications
    1. Thiamine 100 mg IV daily (adult dose)
    2. CNS Infection suspected (esp. children with Seizure)
      1. Acyclovir and antibiotics for suspected Meningitis and Encephalitis
    3. Acute Demyelinating Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) suspected
      1. See Ataxia in Children
      2. Methylprednisolone 20-30 mg/kg/day (up to 1 gram daily) for 3-5 days, then taper over 4-6 weeks
      3. IVIG and Plasmaphoresis have been used in refractory cases

XIV. References

  1. Streich and Huff (2015) Crit Dec Emerg Med 29(2): 2-9
  2. Weiner and Levitt (1989) Ataxia, Neurology for the House Officer, 4th ed, Williams and Wilkins, p. 124-8
  3. Salas (2010) Emerg Med J 27(12): 956-7 [PubMed]

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Related Studies

Ontology: Ataxia (C0004134)

Definition (CHV) unable to coordinate muscle movement
Definition (CHV) unable to coordinate muscle movement
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) Loss of muscle coordination.
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by lack of coordination of muscle movements resulting in the impairment or inability to perform voluntary activities.
Definition (NCI) Lack of coordination of muscle movements resulting in the impairment or inability to perform voluntary activities. Causes include peripheral nerve disorders, posterior column injuries, cerebral and cerebellar disorders, basal ganglia disorders, and thalamic disorders.
Definition (MSH) Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.
Definition (PSY) Loss of coordination of voluntary muscular movement.
Definition (CSP) awkwardness in motor behavior associated with loss of afferent information from the moving part or with loss of control mechanism of the cerebellum.
Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
MSH D001259
ICD10 R27.0
SnomedCT 274241003, 206825002, 158202006, 20262006, 39384006
English Ataxia, Ataxias, Ataxy, ATAXIA, Dyssynergia, Ataxia, unspecified, [D]Ataxia (context-dependent category), [D]Ataxia NOS (context-dependent category), [D]Ataxia NOS, Ataxia [D], reported ataxia, walk is wobbly or unsteady (symptom), walk is wobbly or unsteady as symptom, walk is wobbly or unsteady, ataxia (diagnosis), ataxia, Coordination Impairment, Coordination Impairments, Impairment, Coordination, Impairments, Coordination, Ataxia [Disease/Finding], dyssynergia, [D]Ataxia, Ataxia [D] (situation), [D]Ataxia NOS (situation), [D]Ataxia (situation), Ataxia (loss of muscle coordination), Ataxia (finding), Ataxia, NOS, Ataxia [D] (finding), Ataxia NOS
French ATAXIE, Ataxie, Dyssynergie, Trouble de la coordination
Portuguese ATAXIA, Ataxia, Deficiência de Coordenação, Dissinergia
Spanish ATAXIA, [D]ataxia (categoría dependiente del contexto), [D]ataxia, SAI (categoría dependiente del contexto), [D]ataxia, SAI (situación), [D]ataxia, [D]ataxia (situación), ataxia (pérdida de coordinación muscular), [D]ataxia, SAI, ataxia (hallazgo), ataxia, disinergia, Ataxia, Deficiencia de Coordinación, Disinergía
German ATAXIE, Ataxie, nicht naeher bezeichnet, Ataxie, Dyssynergie, Koordinationsbeeinträchtigung, Koordinationsstörung
Swedish Ataxi
Czech ataxie, Ataxie
Japanese ウンドウシッチョウ, 失調症-運動, 運動失調, 運動失調症
Finnish Ataksia
Italian Invalidità della coordinazione muscolare, Dissinergia, Atassia
Korean 상세불명의 운동실조
Polish Bezład, Ataksja
Hungarian Ataxia
Norwegian Koordinasjonsfortyrrelser, Ataxia, Ataksi, Dyssynergi
Dutch Ataxie, niet gespecificeerd, ataxie, Ataxie, Dyssynergie, Coördinatiestoornis

Ontology: Muscular incoordination (C0231527)

Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
SnomedCT 206826001, 158203001, 39384006
English MUSCULAR INCOORDINATION, [D]Muscular incoordination, [D]Muscular incoordination (context-dependent category), muscular incoordination, [D]Muscular incoordination (situation), Muscular incoordination, Muscular incoordination (finding), incoordination; muscular, muscular; incoordination
Dutch spier incoördinatie, incoördinatie; spier, spier; incoördinatie
French Incoordination musculaire, INCOORDINATION MUSCULAIRE
German muskulaerer Koordinationsmangel, MUSKELBEWEGUNGEN UNKOORDINIERT
Italian Incoordinazione muscolare
Portuguese Descoordenação muscular, INCOORDENACAO MUSCULAR
Spanish Descoordinación muscular, [D]incoordinación muscular (categoría dependiente del contexto), INCOORDINACION MUSCULAR, [D]incoordinación muscular, [D]incoordinación muscular (situación), incoordinación muscular (hallazgo), incoordinación muscular
Japanese 筋肉の協調運動障害, キンニクノキョウチョウウンドウショウガイ
Czech Svalová nekoordinovanost
Hungarian Izomcoordinatio zavara