II. Definitions

  1. Thalamus
    1. Master control of the Autonomic System (analogous to a thermostat)
    2. Coordinates complex, related reflexive actions (e.g. fight or flight, Body Temperature, increased appetite)

III. Physiology

  1. Master control of the Autonomic System (analogous to a thermostat)
  2. Coordinates complex, related reflexive actions
    1. Fight or flight response (Sympathetic Nervous System)
    2. Increased appetite (Parasympathetic Nervous System)
    3. Body Temperature Regulation

IV. Anatomy

  1. Small organ in the Diencephalon
  2. Anterior Hypothalamus
    1. Supraoptic nucleus
      1. Neurons project into the posterior pituitary where they release Vasopressin (Antidiuretic Hormone, ADH)
    2. Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus
      1. Neurons project into the posterior pituitary where they release Oxytocin or Vasopressin (ADH)
  3. Posterior Hypothalamus
    1. Produces and secretes releasing factors for anterior pituitary hormones (ACTH, TSH, GH, LH, FSH)

V. References

  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Neuroanatomy, Medmaster, p. 54-60
  2. Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 140-1

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies

Ontology: Hypothalamic structure (C0020663)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The area of the brain that controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The supervisory center in the brain, rich in ganglia, nerve fibers, and synaptic connections. It is composed of several sections called nuclei, each of which controls a specific function.
Definition (NCI) An important supervisory center in the brain, rich in ganglia, nerve fibers, and synaptic connections. It is composed of several sections called nuclei, each of which controls a specific function. The hypothalamus regulates body temperature, blood pressure, heartbeat, metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, and sugar levels in the blood. Through direct attachment to the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus also meters secretions controlling water balance and milk production in the female. The role of the hypothalamus in awareness of pleasure and pain is well established in the laboratory. It is involved in the expression of emotions, such as fear and rage, and in sexual behaviors. Despite its numerous vital functions, the hypothalamus in humans accounts for only 1/300 of total brain weight, and is about the size of an almond. Structurally, it is joined to the thalamus; the two work together to monitor the sleep-wake cycle.
Definition (MSH) Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Definition (CSP) ventral part of the diencephalon extending from the region of the optic chiasm to the caudal border of the mammillary bodies and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the third ventricle.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D007031
SnomedCT 67923007
English Hypothalamus, Preoptico-hypothalamic region, Preoptico-hypothalamic area, hypothalamic, preoptico-hypothalamic region, Hy, hypothalamus, preoptico-hypothalamic area, HYPOTHALAMUS, BRAIN, HYPOTHALAMUS, Preoptico-Hypothalamic Area, Area, Preoptico-Hypothalamic, Preoptico-Hypothalamic Areas, Preoptico Hypothalamic Area, Areas, Preoptico-Hypothalamic, Hypothalamic structure (body structure), Hypothalamic structure, Hypothalamus, NOS
Swedish Hypotalamus
Czech hypotalamus
Finnish Hypotalamus
Latvian Hipotalāms
Polish Podwzgórze
Norwegian Hypotalamus, Hypothalamus
Portuguese Organum Vasculosum da Lamina Terminalis, Lâmina Terminal, Hipotálamo
Spanish estructura hipotalámica (estructura corporal), estructura hipotalámica, hipotálamo, Hipotálamo
French Hypothalamus
German Hypothalamus
Italian Ipotalamo
Dutch Hypothalamus

Ontology: Hypothalamus, Anterior (C0020664)

Definition (MSH) The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D007032
English Anterior Hypothalamus, Hypothalamus, Anterior
Swedish Hypotalamus, främre
Czech hypotalamus přední
Finnish Etuhypotalamus
Polish Podwzgórze przednie
Norwegian Pars anterior hypothalami, Hypothalamus, Pars anterior, Hypotalamus, fremre
French Hypothalamus antérieur
German Hypothalamus, Pars anterior
Italian Ipotalamo anteriore
Dutch Hypothalamus, Pars anterior
Portuguese Hipotálamo Anterior
Spanish Hipotálamo Anterior

Ontology: Hypothalamus, Middle (C0020669)

Definition (MSH) Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D007033
English Hypothalamus, Medial, Hypothalamus, Middle, Medial Hypothalamus, Middle Hypothalamus, Intermediate hypothalamic region, Intermediate hypothalamic area, Hypothalamic Region, Intermediate, Hypothalamic Regions, Intermediate, Intermediate Hypothalamic Region, Intermediate Hypothalamic Regions, Region, Intermediate Hypothalamic, Regions, Intermediate Hypothalamic, intermediate hypothalamic region, IHR, Regio hypothalamica intermedia, Area hypothalamica intermedia
French Hypothalamus médial, Hypothalamus moyen, Hypothalamus médian, Région hypothalamique moyenne
Swedish Hypotalamus, mittre
Czech hypotalamus střední
Finnish Keskihypotalamus
Japanese 視床下部内側部, 内側部-視床下部
Croatian Not Translated[Hypothalamus, Middle]
Latvian Not Translated[Hypothalamus, Middle]
Polish Podwzgórze środkowe
Norwegian Hypothalamus, Regio intermedia, Midtre hypotalamus, Hypothalamus, Pars medialis, Hypotalamus, midtre
German Hypothalamus, Pars medialis, Hypothalamus, mittlerer, Hypothalamus, Regio intermedia
Italian Ipotalamo mediano
Dutch Hypothalamus, pars medialis
Portuguese Hipotálamo Médio, Região Hipotalâmica Intermediária
Spanish Hipotalamo Medial, Hipotálamo Medio, Región Hipotalámica Intermedia

Ontology: Posterior Hypothalamic Region (C0020670)

Definition (MSH) The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D007034
English Hypothalamus, Posterior, Posterior hypothalamic region, Mammillary level of hypothalamus, Mammillary region, Posterior hypothalamus, Hypothalamic Region, Posterior, Hypothalamic Regions, Posterior, Posterior Hypothalamic Regions, Region, Posterior Hypothalamic, Regions, Posterior Hypothalamic, mammillary region, posterior hypothalamic region, mammillary level of hypothalamus, PHR, posterior hypothalamus, Posterior Hypothalamic Region, Hypothalamus posterior, Regio hypothalamica posterior, Area hypothalamica posterior, Hypothalamica Posterior, Area, Posterior Hypothalamus, Region, Mammillary, Area Hypothalamica Posterior, Posterior, Area Hypothalamica, Hypothalamus Posteriors, Posteriors, Hypothalamus, Mammillary Regions, Area Hypothalamica Posteriors, Posteriors, Area Hypothalamica, Posterior, Hypothalamus, Hypothalamica Posteriors, Area, Mammillary Region, Hypothalamus Posterior, Regions, Mammillary
Swedish Hypotalamus, bakre
Czech hypotalamus zadní
Finnish Takahypotalamus
Italian Regione posteriore dell'ipotalamo, Ipotalamo posteriore
Polish Podwzgórze tylne
Japanese 後部-視床下部, 視床下部後部
Norwegian Hypothalamus, Pars posterior, Bakre hypotalamus, Hypotalamus, bakre del
French Hypothalamus postérieur, Région hypothalamique dorsale, Région hypothalamique postérieure
German Hypothalamus, Pars posterior, Hypothalamus, posteriore Region, Posteriore Hypothalamusregion
Dutch Hypothalamus, Pars posterior
Portuguese Hipotálamo Posterior, Região Hipotalâmica Posterior
Spanish Hipotálamo Posterior, Región Hipotalámica Posterior, Región Posterior Hipotalámica

Ontology: hypothalamus gland (C0885432)

Definition (ALT) Hypothalamus gland.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
English hypothalamus gland, gland hypothalamus, glands hypothalamus, Hypothalamus / hypothalamus gland, hypothalamus/hypothalamus gl