Diffuse

Systemic Sclerosis

search

Systemic Sclerosis, Scleroderma, Systemic Scleroderma

  • Epidemiology
  1. Incidence: 10-20 cases per 1 million persons annually
  2. Prevalence: Up to 250 cases per 1 million persons
  • Pathophysiology
  1. Idiopathic Collagen Disease
  2. Progressive muscle atrophy and fibrosis
  3. Esophagus changes
    1. Loss of peristalsis
    2. Sphincter reduction
  • Types
  1. Limited cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis (60% of cases)
    1. Typical skin involvement is distal to elbows and knees
    2. Associated with Pulmonary Hypertension
    3. Associated with CREST Syndrome
      1. Severe Gastroesophageal Reflux is common
      2. Raynaud's Phenomenon are common
    4. Other associated findings
      1. Telangiectasia
      2. Calcinosis cutis
      3. Sclerodactyly
      4. Digital ischemia
  2. Diffuse cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis (35% of cases)
    1. Skin involvement may be proximal to elbows and knees and may affect face
    2. Associated with Interstitial Lung Disease (pulmonary fibrosis)
    3. May present with renal disease
    4. Skin pigment may be altered
    5. Tendons friction rubs may be present
  3. Systemic Sclerosis sine Scleroderma (5% of cases)
    1. Internal organ manifestations only
  • Symptoms
  1. Gradual symptom onset
  2. Anorexia
  3. Dyspnea
  4. Dysphagia
  5. Reduced sweating
  6. Arthralgias
  • Signs (see specific types above)
  1. Key features
    1. Scleroderma
      1. Skin hardening
      2. Skin contracted with immobility and symmetric deformity (tight skin)
    2. Raynaud's Phenomenon
  2. Other findings
    1. Low grade fever
    2. Muscular weakness
    3. Limited chest expansion
    4. Limited jaw opening
    5. Digital pitting or ulceration
  • Labs
  1. Screening
    1. Antinuclear Antibody
      1. Present in 95% of Systemic Sclerosis (all subtypes)
  2. Confirmation
    1. ANA Nucleolar Pattern
    2. Anti-centromere Antibody
      1. Most associated with limited cutaneous subtype (60-80% of cases)
    3. Antitopoisomerase-1 Antibody (Anti-Scl-70)
      1. Associated with diffuse cutaneous subtype (esp. more severe cases)
      2. Associated with worse prognosis (increased mortality, higher risk of Interstitial Lung Disease)
      3. Test Sensitivity: 43%
      4. Test Specificity: 100%
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Complications
  1. Esophageal Dysmotility
    1. Substantial Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
    2. Barrett's Esophagus
  2. Pulmonary fibrosis
  3. Pulmonary Hypertension
  4. Scleroderma renal crisis
  5. Digital infarction
  • Management
  1. See Raynaud Phenomenon
  2. See Pulmonary Fibrosis
  3. See Pulmonary Hypertension
  4. Skin Fibrosis
    1. Chemotherapy agents
  5. Esophageal Dysmotility
    1. Chew food well and drink adequate liquids with food
    2. Gastric acid reduction
      1. H2 Blocker (e.g. Ranitidine)
      2. Proton Pump Inhibitor (e.g. Prilosec)
  • Resources
  1. Scleroderma Foundation
    1. http://www.scleroderma.org