Vitamins

Beta Carotene

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Beta Carotene, Carotenoid, Lipochrome, Xanthophyll

  • See Also
  • Definitions
  1. Carotenoid
    1. Contained in pigmented vegetables (yellow to red)
    2. Pigments included in Carotenoid group
      1. Beta Carotene
      2. Lycopene (red pigment in tomatoes and berries)
      3. Xanthophyll (yellow pigment with Beta Carotene)
    3. Carotenoids known as Lipochromes once ingested
  2. Lipochromes
    1. Ingested Carotenoids
    2. Concentrate in animal fat
  • Preparations
  • Sources of Beta Carotene
  1. Dark green leafy vegetables
    1. Spinach
    2. Chard
  2. Yellow Vegetables
    1. Carrots
    2. Squash
  3. Yellow fruits
    1. Mango
    2. Cantaloupe
  • Physiology
  1. Beta Carotene is converted to Vitamin A in vivo
  • Mechanism
  1. Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant effects
  • Efficacy
  • Beta Carotene
  1. Does not reduce Cardiovascular disease or Cancer risk
    1. Based on 12 year DBPCT
    2. Experimental group give Beta Carotene 50 mg PO qod
  2. References
    1. Hennekens (1996) N Engl J Med 334:1145-9 [PubMed]
  • Adverse Effects
  • Beta Carotene
  1. Increased Incidence of Lung Cancer by 18% in Smokers
    1. DBPCT of Finnish smokers by 20 mg/day
    2. (1994) N Engl J Med 330:1029 [PubMed]
  2. Increased incidence Lung Cancer, CV and total mortality
    1. DBPCT of smokers and Asbestos-exposed workers
    2. Beta Carotene 30 mg and Vitamin A 25,000 IU
    3. GS Omenn (1996) N Engl J Med, 334:1150 [PubMed]
  3. Excessive Carotenoid ingestion
    1. May result in Carotenemia
  • References
  1. (1988) Dorland's Medical Dictionary, Saunders, p. 276