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Hydrops fetalis

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Hydrops fetalis, Fetal hydrops

  • Causes
  1. Isoimmunization or Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
    1. Rh Sensitization
    2. ABO incompatibility
    3. Other autoantibodies
    4. Glucose 6 phosphate deficiency (G6PD)
  2. Fetal Hemorrhage
    1. Perinatal Trauma
    2. Tumors
    3. Twin to twin transfusion
  3. Red cell production defect
    1. Congenital Parvovirus B19 infection
    2. Diamond-Blackfan Syndrome
    3. Alpha-Thalassemia
    4. Hereditary Spherocytosis
  • Signs (Fetal hydrops)
  1. Large Placenta at delivery
  2. Yellow vernix caseosa
  3. Jaundice
  4. Purpura
  5. Cyanosis
  6. Abdominal Distention
    1. Hepatomegaly
    2. Splenomegaly
    3. Ascites
  7. Scalp Edema results in Halo appearance
  8. Ribs splayed
  9. Abduction of limbs (Budha attitude)
  10. Loss of flexion