Emerging

Viral Hemorrhagic Fever

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Viral Hemorrhagic Fever, Hemorrhagic Fever Syndrome

  • Causes
  1. Arena Virus (Arenaviridae)
    1. Lassa Fever
    2. Junin
    3. Machupo
    4. Lujo
    5. Sabia
    6. Chapare
  2. Bunyavirus (Bunyaviridae)
    1. Rift Valley Fever
    2. Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic FeverVirus
    3. Hantavirus Hemorrhagic Fever
  3. Flavivirus (Flaviviridae)
    1. Yellow Fever
    2. Dengue Fever
    3. Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever
    4. Kyasanur Forest Disease
  4. Filovirus (Filoviridae)
    1. Ebola Virus
    2. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever
  • Findings
  1. Bleeding
    1. Conjunctival Injection
    2. Mucosal Bleeding (gums, gastrointestinal tract)
    3. Hemoptysis
    4. Epistaxis
    5. Hemoptysis
    6. Bloody Diarrhea
    7. Petechiae, Purpura and Ecchymosis
  2. Other findings
    1. Myalgias
    2. Arthralgias
    3. Rash
    4. Encephalitis
  • Diagnosis
  • Hemorrhagic Fever Syndrome (WHO)
  1. Fever <3 weeks AND
  2. Severely ill patient AND
  3. Two hemorrhagic findings (without known host predisposing factors)
    1. Hemorrhagic or Purpuric rash
    2. Epistaxis
    3. Hematemesis
    4. Hemoptysis
    5. Blood in stools
  • References
  1. Black, Martin, DeVos (2018) Crit Dec Emerg Med 32(8): 3-12
  2. Gladwin (2014) Clinical Microbiology Made Ridiculously Simple, MedMaster, Miami, p.306-7, 398