Endo

Polycystic Ovary Disease

search

Polycystic Ovary Disease, Stein-Leventhal Syndrome, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Polycystic Ovaries, Functional Ovarian Hyperandrogenism, PCO Disease, PCOS

  • Epidemiology
  1. Prevalence: 7% of reproductive-aged women in U.S. (most common endocrinopathy in this group)
  • Pathophysiology
  1. History
    1. First described by Stein and Leventhal in 1935
  2. Contributing Factors
    1. Obesity and hyperinsulinemia
    2. Increased adrenal function
  3. Androgen Excess (Hyperandrogenism)
    1. Androstenedione increased
    2. Testosterone increased
    3. Free Testosterone increased
      1. Occurs with decreased Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
  4. Ovarian enlargement with Hyperthecosis
    1. Luteinization of theca interna
    2. Reduction of granulosa cells
  • Symptoms
  1. Menstrual Disorders (80% of PCOS patients)
    1. Oligomenorrhea (36 to 180 day cycles) or Amenorrhea
    2. Anovulatory Bleeding (<6 Menses per year)
    3. Delayed menstrual regularity
  2. Infertility (74% of patients) or Recurrent Miscarriage
  3. Androgenic features
    1. See Hyperandrogenism
    2. Acne Vulgaris
    3. Hirsutism (69%)
    4. Male sweat changes
    5. Clitoris swelling
  4. Central Obesity (49% of PCOS patients)
    1. Weight gain starts in teens and twenties
    2. BMI over 27 (65% of PCOS patients)
  • Signs
  1. Hypertension
  2. Hirsutism
  3. Acne Vulgaris
  4. Alopecia
  5. Acathosis nigricans
  6. Skin Tags
  7. Bilateral ovary enlargement
  • Differential Diagnosis (See Hyperandrogenism)
  1. HAIR-AN Syndrome
  2. Cushing's Syndrome (buffalo hump, striae)
    1. Obtain 24 hour Urine Cortisol (or Dexamethasone Suppression Test)
  3. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (severe Virilization)
    1. Serum DHEAS > 700 ng/dl (Androgen secreting tumor)
    2. Serum Total Testosterone >20 ng/dl (Androgen tumor)
    3. Obtain pelvic Ultrasound and Adrenal CT or MRI
  4. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (Hot Flashes, atrophic urogenital symptoms)
    1. Serum FSH
    2. Serum Estradiol
  5. Hypothalamic Amenorrhea (e.g. Female Athlete Triad with low BMI, Eating Disorder, athlete)
    1. Serum LH
    2. Serum FSH
    3. Serum Estradiol
  6. Acromegaly (protruding jaw, change in head or hand size, visual changes)
    1. Insulinlike Growth Factor 1
  • Associated Conditions
  1. Metabolic Syndrome (RR 2)
  2. Type II Diabetes Mellitus (RR 4)
  3. Obesity (50% of PCOS patients)
  4. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  6. Dyslipidemia
  7. Cardiovascular Disease
  8. Mood Disorders (e.g. Major Depression, Generalized Anxiety)
  1. Indications
    1. Ultrasound is not required for diagnosis of PCOS (diagnosis can be made clinically)
    2. Obtain if Rotterdam Criteria not met or ovarian pathology suspected (e.g. Ovarian tumor)
  2. General features
    1. At least 12 (25 if new technology used) small follicles (2-9 mm diameter each) in various stages
    2. Ovary >10 ml in volume
    3. Thick ovarian capsule
    4. String of pearls appearance
  3. Criteria: Multiple Ovarian Cysts (seen in 80% of cases)
    1. Ten or more cysts in a single plane
    2. Each cyst <10 mm in diameter
    3. Dense stroma
  4. Interpretation
    1. Polycystic appearance is seen in up to 62% of women with normal Ovulation
    2. Polycystic appearance does not diagnose PCOS
    3. PCOS clinical features must be present for diagnosis
    4. Hassan (2003) Fertil Steril 80:966-75 [PubMed]
  • Labs
  • Approach
  1. Consider Hyperandrogenism labs (if not evident from exam or severe Virilization of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia)
    1. Serum DHEAS > 700 ng/dl (Androgen secreting tumor)
    2. Serum Total Testosterone >20 ng/dl (Androgen tumor)
    3. Obtain pelvic Ultrasound and Adrenal CT or MRI for severe Virilization of CAH (deep voice, clitoromegaly)
  2. Exclude other diagnoses
    1. Urine Pregnancy Test
    2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
    3. Morning 17a-hydroxyprogesterone (adrenal hyperplasia)
    4. Serum Prolactin
  3. Evaluate comorbid disease
    1. Blood Pressure
      1. Obtain at each visit
    2. Fasting Glucose (or other Diabetes Mellitus Screening)
      1. Obtain at diagnosis and re-screen at least every 3-5 years (or more often)
    3. Fasting Lipid Panel
      1. Obtain at time of diagnosis
  4. Other tests to consider
    1. Serum LH (hypothalamic Amenorrhea)
    2. Serum FSH (hypothalamic Amenorrhea, Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)
    3. Serum Estradiol (hypothalamic Amenorrhea, Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)
  5. Other tests that have been used in past (listed for historical purposes)
    1. Glucose to Insulin Ratio < 4.5 is consistent with PCOS-related hyperinsulinemia
  • Labs
  • Review of laboratory changes in PCOS
  1. Insulin Resistance Syndrome (70% of PCOS patients)
    1. Glucose to Insulin Ratio < 4.5
      1. Sensitive marker of Insulin Resistance in PCOS
    2. Insulin increased (C-Peptide increased)
    3. Fasting Serum Glucose increased
    4. Two hour Glucose Tolerance Test abnormal
  2. Gonadotropin increases
    1. Luteinizing hormone (LH) exaggerated surge
    2. Serum LH to Serum FSH ratio exceeds 3.0 (30%)
    3. Serum Testosterone >20 ng/dl
    4. Serum Free Testosterone >2.57 pg/ml
    5. Androstenedione >2.7 ng/ml
  3. Associated endocrine abnormality testing
    1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    2. Serum Prolactin
    3. Consider adrenal function testing
  4. Associated dyslipidemia
    1. Total Cholesterol increased
    2. LDL Cholesterol increased
    3. HDL Cholesterol decreased
    4. Triglycerides increased
  • Diagnosis
  1. Delay diagnostic evaluation until at least 2 years after Menarche
  2. Diagnosis may be made in many patients based on history, exam and limited laboratory testing
  3. Rotterdam Criteria from 2003 (2 of 3 required in adults, 3 of 3 in adolescents)
    1. Hyperandrogenism
    2. Ovulatory Dysfunction
    3. Polycystic Ovaries
  1. Weight loss of 10% in Overweight patients
    1. Insulin Resistance decreases with weight loss
      1. Kiddy (1992) Clin Endocrinol 36:105-11 [PubMed]
    2. Results in 75% conception rate in PCOS
      1. Bates (1982) Fertil Steril 38:406-9 [PubMed]
  1. Fertility desired
    1. First-line
      1. Clomiphene (Clomid) or Letrozole (Femara)
    2. Adunctive in Overweight women (if clomiphene ineffective alone)
      1. Metformin (Glucophage)
  2. Fertility not desired
    1. First-line (Unopposed Estrogen management)
      1. Levonorgestrel-releasing Intrauterine Device (Mirena IUD) or other hormonal contraceptive
      2. Provera 10 mg orally daily for 7 days repeated every 3 months or
      3. Seasonal Oral Contraceptive Cycle (e.g. Seasonale) or
      4. Oral Contraceptive with low Androgenic Activity (preferred first line agents)
        1. Ortho Tri-Cyclen
        2. Ortho-Cept or Desogen
        3. Modicon
        4. Ortho-Cyclen
        5. Yasmin
    2. Second-line
      1. Metformin (Glucophage)
  1. See HAIR-AN Syndrome
  2. See Hirsutism
  3. Fertility desired
    1. See Hair Removal Technique
    2. Electrolysis
    3. Laser Hair Reduction
  4. Fertility not desired
    1. First-line agents
      1. See Hair Removal Technique
      2. Hormonal Contraception
    2. Second-Line Agents
      1. Spironolactone (Aldactone) 50 mg orally twice daily (Teratogen risk, use with Hormonal Contraception)
      2. Eflornithine (Vaniqa) 13.9% applied to face daily
      3. Finasteride (Propecia)
      4. Flutamide (Eulexin)
    3. Third-Line Agents
      1. Metformin
  1. Fertility desired
    1. Benzoyl Peroxide
    2. Topical Antibiotics
  2. Fertility not desired
    1. First-line agents
      1. Hormonal Contraception
        1. See Adjunctive Acne Vulgaris Management
      2. Topical Agents
        1. See Acne Vulgaris Management
        2. Benzoyl Peroxide
        3. Retin-A
        4. Differin
        5. Topical Antibiotics
    2. Second-line agents
      1. Spironolactone (with Contraception to prevent pregnancy due to Teratogenicity)
  1. Metformin (Glucophage)
    1. Primarily indicated in comorbid Diabetes Mellitus, history of Gestational Diabetes or Metabolic Syndrome
    2. May be used in those trying to conceive
    3. Consider in irregular Menses in women unable to take Oral Contraceptives
    4. Start at 500 mg PO daily and advance to 1500-2000 mg daily divided bid
    5. Effect not seen until dose >1000 mg/day
    6. Induces Ovulation in up to 46% of PCOS cases
    7. Barbieri (2003) Obstet Gynecol 101:785-93 [PubMed]
    8. Lord (2003) BMJ 327:951-6 [PubMed]
  2. Glitazones
    1. Not recommended in general due to risk of weight gain and Miscarriage
    2. Pioglitazone (Actos) 30 mg orally daily
      1. Ortega-Gonzalez (2005) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90(3): 1360-5 [PubMed]
    3. Rosiglitazone (Avandia) 2-8 mg orally daily (best effect with higher doses)
      1. No longer available in U.S. due to adverse effects
      2. Cataldo (2006) Hum Reprod 21(1): 109-20 [PubMed]
  • Management
  • Advanced
  1. Gonadotropins (e.g. Metrodin, Pergonal)
    1. Risk of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS)
  2. FSH with hCG
  3. Glucocorticoids (Prednisone, Dexamethasone)
    1. Indicated in adrenocortical hyperplasia
  4. GnRH-agonist
    1. Indicated prior to Ovulation induction
  • Management
  • Surgical
  1. Ovarian wedge resection
    1. Normal cycles resume in 80% of patients
    2. Conception occurs in 63%
    3. Risk of peritubular and ovarian adhesions
  2. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling
    1. Similar results to ovarian wedge resection
    2. Minimally invasive
  • Complications
  1. Infertility
  2. Increased Breast Cancer risk
  3. Increased Endometrial Cancer risk
    1. Associated with Unopposed Estrogen
  4. Increased cardiovascular disease risk