Pharm

Glucagon

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Glucagon, GlucaGen, Bagsimi, Gvoke

  • Physiology
  1. Endogenous polypeptide hormone
  2. Secreted by pancreatic alpha cells
  3. Effect in Hypoglycemia (primary effect)
    1. Pancreas secretes in response to Hypoglycemia
    2. Glucagon stimulates Glucose release from glycogen (glycogenolysis)
  4. Acts at Catecholamine-independent receptors on cardiac cells
    1. Increases intracellular calcium in cardiac cells
    2. Increases myocardial contractions
  • Pharmacokinetics
  1. Onset of action: 5 to 20 minutes
  • Preparations
  1. Background
    1. Cost approximately $280 for each agent (in 2019)
    2. Shelf-life: 2 years
  2. GlucaGen Hypokit (IM)
    1. Standard IM Injection
  3. Gvoke (SC)
    1. Subcutaneous Injection using a prefilled syringer (autoinjector release pending in 2020)
  4. Bagsimi (Intranasal)
    1. Powder sprayed into a single nostril
  1. Adult: 1 mg IV, IM or SC
  2. Pediatric
    1. Standard dose: 30 ug/kg IM
    2. Newborn of diabetic mother: 300 ug/kg IM
    3. Maximum dose: 1 mg
  • References
  1. (2019) Presc Lett 26(11): 62-3