Myocardium

Cardiomyopathy

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Cardiomyopathy, Myocardial Disease, Primary Cardiomyopathy, Secondary Cardiomyopathy, Cardiomyopathy Causes

  • Images
  1. Cardiomyopathy Types
    1. cvCardiomyopathy.png
  • Causes
  • Primary Cardiomyopathy (intrinsic, isolated cardiac effects)
  1. Acquired Primary Cardiomyopathy
    1. See Myocarditis
    2. Tachycardia induced Cardiomyopathy
      1. Atrial Fibrillation with persistent rapid ventricular rate
      2. Grogan's Syndrome
    3. Takotsuba Cardiomyopathy (Stress Cardiomyopathy)
    4. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy (or Postpartum Cardiomyopathy)
      1. Associated with Obesity, age over 30 years, Multiparity, and Preeclampsia
      2. Onset from third trimester to five months postpartum
  2. Genetic Primary Cardiomyopathy
    1. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
      1. Autosomal Dominant condition with Incidence of 1 in 500
      2. Leading cause of Sudden Death in Athletes
    2. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (rare, hereditary)
    3. Left ventricular compaction
    4. Other genetic disorders
      1. Ion channel disorder
      2. Mitochondrial Myopathy
  3. Mixed Primary Cardiomyopathy
    1. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy (rare)
    2. Dilated Cardiomyopathy
      1. Most common Cardiomyopathy
      2. Third leading cause of Heart Failure behind Coronary Artery Disease and Hypertension
  • Causes
  • Secondary Cardiomyopathy (extrinsic or systemic condition related)
  1. See Myocarditis
  2. Autoimmune, Collagen Vascular Disease or inflammatory conditions
    1. Dermatomyositis
    2. Polyarteritis Nodosa
    3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    4. Sarcoidosis
    5. Scleroderma
    6. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  3. Endocrine conditions
    1. Acromegaly
    2. Diabetes Mellitus
      1. Multi-factorial (LVH, micro/macro coronary disease, endothelial dysfunction, Autonomic Dysfunction)
    3. Hyperparathyroidism
    4. Hyperthyroidism (high output Heart Failure)
    5. Hypothyroidism
    6. Obesity
    7. Pheochromocytoma
    8. Paget's Disease (high output Heart Failure)
  4. Infectious conditions
    1. Parasitic Infections
      1. Chagas Disease (Trypanosoma cruzi, most common Myocarditis cause wordwide)
      2. Trichinella species (Trichinosis roundworm)
      3. Taenia solium (Cysticercosis)
      4. Entamoeba histolytica (Amoebiasis)
    2. Viral Infections
      1. Parvovirus B19 (most common Myocarditis cause in U.S. in 2017)
      2. Human Herpes Virus 6 (HH6)
      3. Coxsackie Virus B (previously most common in U.S.)
      4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
      5. Hepatitis C
      6. Adenovirus
      7. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV, Mononucleosis)
      8. Influenza
      9. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    3. Bacterial Infections
      1. Rickettsia
      2. Mycobacteria
      3. Streptococcal Pharyngitis (with secondary Acute Rheumatic Fever, Myocarditis)
      4. Lyme Disease (strongly consider in endemic areas as cause of Myocarditis)
      5. Diphtheria (toxin-induced Myocarditis)
  5. Infiltrative conditions
    1. Amyloidosis
    2. Gaucher Disease
    3. Hunter Syndrome
    4. Hurler Syndrome
  6. Neuromuscular conditions and Glycogen Storage Disease
    1. Glycogen Storage Disease
    2. Neurofibromatosis
    3. Barth Syndrome
    4. Muscular Dystrophy
      1. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
      2. Becker Muscular Dystrophy
      3. Myotonic Dystrophy
  7. Nutritional deficiency
    1. Protein Malnutrition (Kwashiorkor)
    2. Thiamine deficiency (Wet Beriberi)
    3. Niacin Deficiency (Pellagra)
    4. Vitamin C Deficiency (Scurvy)
    5. L-Carnitine Deficiency
    6. Selenium Deficiency
    7. Severe Anemia (high output Heart Failure)
  8. Toxic-metabolic conditions
    1. Anabolic Steroids
    2. Chloroquine (Aralen)
    3. Hemochromatosis
    4. Radiation Exposure including Radiation Therapy
    5. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning (Myocarditis)
    6. Chronic Stimulant Abuse
      1. Cocaine and other Catecholamines
      2. Methylphenidate
    7. Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy
      1. See Alcohol Related Cardiac Effects
    8. Anthracycline Chemotherapy
      1. Doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Doxil)
      2. Daunorubicin (Cerubidine)
      3. Epirubicin (Ellence)
      4. Idarubicin
      5. Mitoxantrone (Novantrone)
      6. Valrubicin
    9. Other Chemotherapeutic agents
      1. Cyclophosphamide
    10. Heavy Metal Poisoning
      1. Arsenic Poisoning
      2. Cobalt Poisoning
      3. Lead Poisoning
      4. Mercury Poisoning
    11. Other medications
      1. Clozapine and other Antipsychotics (Myocarditis)
  9. Miscellaneous conditions
    1. Arteriovenous fistula (high output Heart Failure)
  • Management
  1. See Congestive Heart Failure
  2. See causative condition for specific management