Htn

Hypertension

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Hypertension, Htn, Essential Hypertension

  • Epidemiology
  1. Demographics
    1. Overall Hypertension Prevalence: 30% of U.S. Adults
      1. White Adults in US: 20% are hypertensive
      2. Black Adults in US: 30% are hypertensive
    2. Age 60-69 years old: 65% are hypertensive
      1. Of all hypertensives, >50% are over age 65 years
  2. Outcomes
    1. Best predictor to outcome varies by age
      1. Diastolic Blood Pressure best predictor <50 years
      2. SBP and DBP predict outcomes equally ages 50-59
      3. Pulse Pressure best predictor age >60 years
    2. Coronary Artery Disease
      1. Hypertension Causes 35-45% morbidity and mortality
    3. Cerebrovascular Accident
      1. Relative Risk increases 1.84 for each 10 mmHg DBP
      2. Midlife Hypertension raises longterm CVA risk
      3. Seshadri (2001) Arch Intern Med 161:2343-50 [PubMed]
    4. Alzheimer's Disease
      1. Increased SBP in middle age is predisposing factor
    5. Reference
      1. (1995) Lancet 346(8991):1647-53 [PubMed]
      2. Kivipelto (2001) BMJ 322:1447-51 [PubMed]
  • Definition
  • Types
  1. Essential Hypertension (Primary Hypertension)
    1. Stage 1-2 (DBP 90-104) in 80% of cases
  2. Accelerated Malignant Hypertension
    1. Recent substantial Blood Pressure increase
    2. Associated with Retinal vessel damage
      1. Retinal Hemorrhages
      2. Retinal exudates
      3. Papilledema
    3. Diastolic Blood Pressure over 140 mmHg
  3. Isolated Systolic Hypertension
    1. Systolic Blood Pressure: >160 mmHg
    2. Diastolic Blood Pressure: <90 mmHg
    3. Risks
      1. Coronary Artery Disease
      2. Cerebrovascular Accident
    4. Onset: 5th decade
    5. Affects 11% of those over age 75 years
    6. Results from progressive fall in vessel compliance
  1. See Hypertension Causes
  2. Secondary Hypertension accounts for 5-10% of Hypertension Causes overall
    1. In age 18 to 40 years old, accounts for 30% of Hypertension
  • Diagnosis
  • Management