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Blood Alcohol

Aka: Blood Alcohol, Blood Alcohol Level, Blood Alcohol Content, Blood Alcohol Concentration, Serum Ethanol, Alcohol Breath Test, Breathalyzer, Biomarkers of Alcohol Use, Urine Ethyl Glucuronide, Urine Ethyl Sulfate, Phospatidylethanol
  1. See Also
    1. Alcohol Use Disorder
    2. Alcohol Intoxication
    3. Cirrhosis
    4. Alcoholic Hepatitis
    5. Urine Drug Screen
  2. Definitions
    1. Blood Alcohol Content (BAC, Blood Alcohol Concentration)
      1. Measure of Alcohol content (and Intoxication) in blood
      2. Measured in grams of Alcohol per 100 ml of blood (expressed as percent)
      3. Example: 0.10% = 0.10 g Alcohol per 100 ml blood = 100 mg/dl = 22 mmol/L
    2. Alcohol Breath Test (Breathalyzer)
      1. Measured as grams Alcohol per 210 Liters of breath
  3. Labs: Blood Alcohol Level
    1. Blood Alcohol Effects in non-habitual drinkers
      1. Blood Alcohol Content 0.02% to 0.05% (20 to 50 mg/dl, 4.4 to 11 mmol/L)
        1. Decreased fine motor coordination
      2. Blood Alcohol Content 0.05% to 0.10% (50 to 100 mg/dl, 11 to 22 mmol/L)
        1. Impaired judgement
        2. Impaired concentration
      3. Blood Alcohol Content 0.10% to 0.15% (100 to 150 mg/dl, 22 to 33 mmol/L)
        1. Altered gait and balance
      4. Blood Alcohol Content 0.15% to 0.25% (150 to 250 mg/dl, 33 to 55 mmol/L)
        1. Lethargy
        2. May need assistance to sit upright
      5. Blood Alcohol Content 0.30% (300 mg/dl, 66 mmol/L)
        1. Coma
      6. Blood Alcohol Content 0.40% (400 mg/dl, 88 mmol/L)
        1. Respiratory Depression
      7. References
        1. Marx (2002) Rosen Emergency Medicine, Elsevier, p. 2513
        2. (2022) Clinical Effects of Blood Alcohol Concentration, UpToDate, accessed 4/21/2022
    2. Blood Alcohol Metabolism
      1. Blood Alcohol decreases 0.02 g/dl/h in non-Alcoholics
      2. Blood Alcohol decreases 0.03 g/dl/h in Alcoholics
  4. Labs: Biomarkers of Alcohol Use
    1. Ethyl Glucuronide
      1. Urine Alcohol biomarker
        1. Positive if Alcohol use in last 3 days (longer if Renal Insufficiency)
        2. Detects ingestions of as little as 5 g of Alcohol
      2. Test Sensitivity: 76%
      3. Test Specificity: 93%
    2. Ethyl Sulfate
      1. Urine Alcohol biomarker
        1. Positive if Alcohol use in last 3 days (longer if Renal Insufficiency)
      2. Test Sensitivity: 82%
      3. Test Specificity: 86%
    3. Phospatidylethanol
      1. Blood Alcohol biomarker
        1. Positive if Alcohol use in last 2 to 3 weeks
        2. No major confounding factors (e.g. age, BMI, gender, renal or liver disease)
        3. More expensive than the urine biomarkers
      2. Test Sensitivity: 100%
      3. Test Specificity: 96%
  5. References
    1. Stewart (2013) Alcohol Clin Exp Res 37(1): 150-5 [PubMed]
    2. Andresen-Streichert (2017) 30(6): 611-20 [PubMed]

Breathalyzer Tests (C0085924)

Concepts Diagnostic Procedure (T060)
MSH D001944
SnomedCT 225622001
English Breathalyzer Test, Test, Breathalyzer, Tests, Breathalyzer, Breathalyser test, Breathalyser test (procedure), Breathalyzer Tests
Portuguese Teste de Análise do Ar Expirado
Spanish Test de Alcoholemia, prueba de alcohol en el aliento (procedimiento), prueba de alcohol en el aliento
German Atemluftanalyse
French Éthylotest, Tests d'alcoolémie
Czech alkohol tester, měřič alkoholu v dechu
Italian Test con il palloncino, Prove con l'etilometro
Norwegian Alkotest
Dutch Ademanalyse(test)
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Blood alcohol level measurement (C0542492)

Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
SnomedCT 144257006, 167009006
English blood alcohol level, blood ethanol level (BAL) (lab test), blood ethanol level (BAL), blood alcohol concentration measurement, blood alcohol level measurement, BAC determination, Blood alcohol level measurement, blood ethanol level, blood alcohol level test, blood alcohol measurement, Blood ethanol level (procedure), Blood alcohol level, Blood ethanol level, Blood ethanol measurement (procedure), Blood ethanol measurement
Spanish determinación de nivel de alcoholemia, determinación de nivel de etanol en sangre, medición de etanol en sangre (procedimiento), medición de etanol en sangre, nivel de alcohol en sangre
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Blood alcohol concentration (C0684262)

Concepts Finding (T033)
English BAL, BAC, Blood alcohol concentration, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), blood alcohol concentration, blood alcohol level, Blood Alcohol Concentration
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Blood alcohol (C1167994)

Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
Japanese 血中アルコール, ケッチュウアルコール
Czech Alkohol v krvi
English alcohol blood, blood alcohol, Blood alcohol
Italian Alcool ematico
Hungarian Alkohol vérszint
French Alcool sanguin
Portuguese Alcoolemia
Spanish Determinación de acoholemia
Dutch bloed alcohol
German Blutalkohol
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Serum ethanol measurement (C1278128)

Concepts Laboratory Procedure (T059)
SnomedCT 167016007, 144264008, 313634009
English Serum ethanol level (procedure), Serum ethanol level, Serum ethanol measurement (procedure), Serum ethanol measurement
Spanish determinación de nivel sérico de etanol, medición sérica de etanol (procedimiento), medición sérica de etanol
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Ethyl glucuronide | urine (C1987551)

Concepts Carbohydrate (T118)
LNC LP53374-2
English Ethyl glucuronide | urine
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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