Mental Health Book

Hallucinogen Use Disorders


Amphetamine Use Disorders



Aka: Methamphetamine, Methamphetamine Hydrochloride
  1. See Also
    1. Amphetamine
    2. MDMA
    3. Cocaine
  2. Background: Street Names
    1. Methamphetamine
      1. Speed
      2. Meth
      3. Chalk
    2. Methamphetamine Hydrochloride (Crystalline)
      1. Crystal Meth
      2. Glass
      3. Ice
  3. Definition
    1. Stimulant drug of abuse similar to Cocaine
    2. Manufactured from Pseudoephedrine
  4. Epidemiology
    1. Prevalence: 2.8% of U.S. adults 18 to 26 years of age
      1. More common in those living in Western United States
      2. Iritani (2007) Addiction 102:1102-13 [PubMed]
    2. Ethnicity
      1. Most Methamphetamine users are white (0.7% of white population)
      2. Pacific islanders (e.g. Hawaii) and Native Americans (2.2 to 1.7% of these populations)
    3. Other populations with higher use percentages of Methamphetamine abuse
      1. Homosexual men
  5. Effects
    1. Stimulant agent similar to Cocaine
    2. Used orally, intranasally, intravenously, smoked or inserted rectally
    3. Effect: Initial
      1. Immediate rush-sensation that lasts for minutes (limited to smoked or IV forms)
      2. Euphoria
      3. Hightened alertness
      4. Increased energy
      5. Increased libido (and associated high risk sexual behavior)
      6. Diminshed appetite
    4. Effect: Later as drug wears off
      1. Prolonged sleep or Sedation
      2. Dysphoria
  6. Pharmacokinetics
    1. Half-life: 12 hours
    2. Metabolized by liver via Cytochrome P2D6 system
  7. Pathophysiology
    1. High potential for abuse and dependence
    2. Enhances mood via stimulation of Dopamine release
    3. Nerve terminals recede in response to Methamphetamine
      1. Affects Dopamine and Serotonin nerve endings
      2. Effects may be permanent
  8. Adverse Effects: Acute
    1. Most related deaths occur from homicides, Suicides and accidents following use
    2. Similar to other adrenergic agents (e.g. Amphetamine)
      1. See Sympathomimetic Toxicity
    3. Vascular effects
      1. Sympathomimetic effects (Tachycardia, Hypertension, hyperthermia)
      2. Cerebrovascular Accident
      3. Myocardial Infarction
  9. Adverse Effects: Chronic
    1. Addiction
    2. Irreversible Neuronal destruction
      1. Memory loss
      2. Learning Impairment
      3. Motor slowing
    3. Psychiatric Changes
      1. Worsening Mood Disorders
        1. Anxiety Disorder
        2. Depression with increased Suicidal Ideation
      2. Psychosis (esp. paranoia)
    4. Premature aging effect
    5. Chronic malnutrition and associated anorexia
    6. Severe Tooth Decay ("meth mouth")
    7. Skin Abscesses (related to skin-picking behaviors)
  10. Adverse Effects: Pregnancy
    1. Placental Abruption
    2. Fetus
      1. Intrauterine Growth Retardation
      2. Prematurity
      3. Cleft Lip and Palate
      4. Heart defects
    3. Newborn withdrawal
      1. Abnormal sleep or food intake
      2. Tremors
    4. Infant
      1. Methamphetamine is secreted in Breast Milk
  11. Labs
    1. See Sympathomimetic Toxicity
    2. See Unknown Ingestion
    3. Comprehensive metabolic panel
    4. Serum Lactic Acid
    5. Venous Blood Gas
    6. Creatinine phosphokinase
    7. Drug Screening
      1. Urine Drug Screen positive for 48 hours after use
      2. Hair analysis detects Methamphetamines
      3. Meconium testing is preferred for Newborn Screening
        1. Positive for Methamphetamine use in the second half of pregnancy
  12. Differential Diagnosis
    1. Heat Stroke
    2. Thyrotoxicosis (Hyperthyroidism)
    3. Pheochromocytoma
    4. Drug Overdose
      1. Other Sympathomimetic Toxicity (e.g. Cocaine, bath salts)
      2. TheophyllinePoisoning
      3. Salicylate Poisoning
        1. Metabolic Acidosis with Anion Gap
      4. Anticholinergic Poisoning
        1. Anhidrosis (dry) as opposed to diaphoresis in SympathomimeticPoisoning
  13. Management: Acute Toxicity
    1. See Unknown Ingestion for general approach
    2. See Sympathomimetic Toxicity
      1. Approach for Sympathomimetics is similar for most Sympathomimetic agents
    3. Gastric Decontamination (not indicated unless early presentation after ingestion, or body packing accident)
      1. Consider Gastric Lavage with Activated Charcoal if Methamphetamine was ingested immediately prior to presentation
    4. Sedation
      1. See Agitated Delirium
      2. Benzodiazepines are preferred first line (repeat every 10 minutes as needed)
        1. Lorazepam 4 mg IV
        2. Diazepam 5-10 mg IV
      3. Although Antipsychotics may be considered (e.g. Zyprexa), risk of QTc Prolongation and hyperthermia
    5. Hypertensive Crisis
      1. Consider Nitroprusside or Phentolamine
    6. Hyperthermia
      1. Benzodiazepines
      2. RSI and Endotracheal Intubation
  14. Management: Chemical Dependency Treatment
    1. Chemical Dependency Program (e.g. Matrix Model)
    2. Contingency management program with rewards for patients with negative Urine Drug Screens
    3. Medications which may offer benefit
      1. Fluoxetine and Bupropion may reduce short-term cravings
      2. Imipramine improves compliance with therapy
    4. References
      1. Cretzmeyer (2003) J Subst Abuse Treat 24: 267-77 [PubMed]
  15. Associated Conditions (related to demographics of Methamphetamine use)
    1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Infection)
    2. Hepatitis C Infection
    3. Criminality
    4. Hazardous environment
      1. Methamphetamine produces 6 pounds of toxic waste for every 1 pound of drug
      2. Methamphetamine lab explosions are not uncommon
  16. Complications: Class effect of stimulant Drugs of Abuse
    1. See Sympathomimetic Toxicity
  17. References
    1. Boyer and Hernon in Traub and Burns (2015) Methamphetamine Intoxication, UpToDate, accessed 1/10/2017
    2. Winslow (2007) Am Fam Physician 76(8):1169-76 [PubMed]
    3. (2004) Med Lett Drugs Ther 46:62-3 [PubMed]
  18. Resources
    1. National Institute on Drug Abuse: Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine (C0025611)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Methamphetamine - meth for short - is a very addictive stimulant drug. It is a powder that can be made into a pill or a shiny rock (called a crystal). The powder can be eaten or snorted up the nose. It can also be mixed with liquid and injected into your body with a needle. Crystal meth is smoked in a small glass pipe.

Meth at first causes a rush of good feelings, but then users feel edgy, overly excited, angry, or afraid. Meth use can quickly lead to addiction. It causes medical problems including

  • Making your body temperature so high that you pass out
  • Severe itching
  • "Meth mouth" - broken teeth and dry mouth
  • Thinking and emotional problems

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

Definition (NCI) An amphetamine with central nervous system (CNS) stimulating activity. Methamphetamine acts by both facilitating the release of catecholamines, particularly noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, from nerve terminals in the brain and by inhibiting their uptake. This leads to an increase in synaptic concentration of these neurotransmitters and results in increased stimulation of postsynaptic receptors.
Definition (MSH) A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Definition (CSP) sympathomimetic amine closely related chemically to both amphetamine and ephedrine, with actions similar to those of amphetamine; abuse may lead to dependence.
Concepts Hazardous or Poisonous Substance (T131) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D008694
SnomedCT 387499002, 27546002, 8692006
LNC LP16194-0, LP32102-3, MTHU005018, LA15259-7
English Deoxyephedrine, Desoxyephedrine, Methamphetamine, Methylamphetamine, N-Methylamphetamine, N Methylamphetamine, methamphetamine, Benzeneethanamine, N,alpha-dimethyl-, (S)-, Metamfetamine, deoxyephedrine, decongestants desoxyephedrine, desoxyephedrine (medication), methamphetamine preparations, anorexics amphetamines methamphetamine preparations, desoxyephedrine, methamphetamine preparations (medication), Methamphetamine [Chemical/Ingredient], crank, meth, methylamphetamine, cranks, ice, ice [methamphetamine], Speed, Tina, Ice, Glass, Crystal, Chalk, Meth, metamfetamine, Desoxyephedrine (substance), METHAMPHETAMINE, Methamphetamine (product), Methamphetamine (substance)
Swedish Metamfetamin
Czech methamfetamin, chlormethamfetamin, metamfetamin, pervitin
Spanish desoxiefedrina, desoxiefedrina (sustancia), metanfetamina (producto), metanfetamina (sustancia), metanfetamina, Desoxiefedrina, Metanfetamina
Finnish Metamfetamiini
Japanese メタンフェタミン, メチルプロパミン, ヒロポン, メタンフェタミン塩酸塩, デオキシエフェドリン, ノロジン, 塩酸メタンフェタミン
French Méthamphétamine, Métamfétamine
Polish Metamfetamina
German Desoxyephedrin, Methamphetamin
Italian Metamfetamina
Portuguese Desoxiefedrina, Metanfetamina
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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