Pharmacology Book


  • Nutrition in the Intensive Care Unit


Nutrition in the Intensive Care Unit

Aka: Nutrition in the Intensive Care Unit, Malnutrition Following ICU Admission, Post-ICU Admission Malnutrition
  1. See Also
    1. Critical Care
    2. Enteral Tube
    3. Orogastric Tube
    4. Nasogastric Tube
    5. Enterostomy Tube
  2. Risk Factors: ICU Malnutrition
    1. Prolonged ICU admission
    2. Intubation or Tracheostomy (may interfere with Swallowing)
    3. Prolonged period of poor oral intake (bowel mucosa atrophy)
    4. Sepsis
  3. Management
    1. See Enteral Nutrition
    2. See Enteral Tube Feeding
    3. See Total Parenteral Nutrition (Enteral Tube Feeding is preferred)
    4. Early initiation of Enteral Tube Feeding is preferred (first 24-48 hours of ICU admission)
  4. Complications: ICU Malnutrition
    1. Acalculous Cholecystitis
      1. Poor lipid intake results in bile stasis
      2. High mortality (up to 50%) in delayed diagnosis
    2. Muscle wasting
      1. Total body Protein loss exceeds 2 pounds for a 3 week ICU admission
      2. Initial (first 10 days): Skeletal Muscle is primary source of lost Protein
      3. Later (after 10 days): Visceral Muscle is lost
      4. Plank (1998) Ann Surg 228(2): 146-58 [PubMed]
  5. Resources
    1. Internet Book of Critical Care (EM-Crit, Farkas)
  6. References
    1. Marino (2014) The ICU Book, p. 859-73
    2. Volk (2009) Am Fam Physician 79(6): 459-64 [PubMed]

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