Neurology Book

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Frontal Lobe

Aka: Frontal Lobe, Cerebral Frontal Lobe, Frontal Lobe Function, Primary Motor Area, Brodmann Area 4, Supplemental Motor Area, Brodmann Area 6, Frontal Eye Fields, Brodmann Area 8, Broca's Speech Area, Brodmann Area 44 and 45, Pars Orbitalis, Brodmann Area 47, Brodmann Areas of Frontal Lobe, Inferior Frontal Gyrus, Orbital Gyrus, Middle Frontal Gyrus, Superior Frontal Gyrus, Precentral Gyrus, Cingular Gyrus, Gyrus Rectus, Anterior Paracentral Gyrus
  1. Definitions
    1. Frontal Lobe
      1. Frontal Lobe is key to cognition, expression, problem solving and memory
      2. Frontal Lobe lesions may result in Expressive Aphasia, personality changes and Dementia
      3. The Primary Motor Area (Area 4), as with the Parietal Lobe's sensory regions, is organized into the cortical humunculus
        1. Disproportionately large region devoted to the face and hands
      4. Broca's Speech Area (dominant hemisphere, area 44) is key to fluent verbal expression
  2. Anatomy: Brodmann Areas of Frontal Lobe
    1. Images
      1. neuroBrodmannMedial.png
      2. neuroBrodmannLateral.png
    2. Primary Motor Area (Area 4)
      1. Lesions to this area (e.g. CVA) result in Flaccid Paralysis followed by partial recovery
      2. Babinski Reflex may be present
      3. Often affected in concert with the lesions to the Supplemental Motor Area (Area 6)
    3. Supplemental Motor Area (Area 6)
      1. Lesions often affect Area 4 and Area 6 together, and result in spasticity and hyperreflexia
    4. Frontal Eye Fields (Area 8)
      1. Lesions affect voluntary Extraocular Movements looking to the opposite side
    5. Broca's Speech Area (Area 44, 45)
      1. Dominant hemisphere lesions to Broca's Speech Area results in motor Aphasia (Broca Aphasia, Expressive Aphasia)
      2. Patients with motor Aphasia know what they want to say, but their speech is slow and simplified
        1. Nouns and prepositions are often omitted
    6. Orbital part of Inferior Frontal Gyrus (Pars Orbitalis, Area 47)
      1. Involved in the processing of syntax in oral and sign languages, musical syntax, and semantic aspects of language
  3. Anatomy: Gyri
    1. Images
      1. neuroGyrusIllustrationGrayBB1197.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    2. Precentral Gyrus
      1. Much of the primary motor cortex corresponds to this gyrus
      2. Convolution at the posterior Frontal Lobe on the convex side of both Cerebral Hemispheres
      3. Anterior to the Post Central Gyrus and parallel to the central sulcus
      4. Central sulcus separates the pre and post central gyri
    3. Inferior Frontal Gyrus
      1. Region on the surface of the Frontal Lobe visibly divided in three (pars opercularis, the pars triangularis, Pars Orbitalis)
      2. Bound by the inferior frontal sulcus dorsally and the lateral fissure ventrally
    4. Middle Frontal Gyrus
      1. Large region on the lateral surface of the Frontal Lobe and part of the prefrontal cortex
      2. Lies between the superior and the inferior frontal sulci and rostral to the Precentral Gyrus
    5. References
      1. National Cancer Institute
  4. Symptoms: Findings of pathology (e.g. Tumor)
    1. Personality change
    2. Expressive Aphasia
  5. Signs: Brain Lesions
    1. Hemiparesis (Area 4) with or without spasticity and hyperreflexia (Area 6)
    2. Gait disturbance
    3. Generalized Seizures or Focal Seizures
    4. Expressive Aphasia (Areas 44, 45)
    5. Behavior and Personality change (lesions anterior to the Primary Motor Area, Brodmann 4)
      1. Judgment and abstract thinking affected
      2. Affects Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
      3. May present with concerns for Dementia
  6. Exam: Normal Findings (No lesions)
    1. Points finger each time examiner makes fist
    2. Makes fist when examiner points
  7. References
    1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Physiology, Medmaster, Miami, p. 107
    2. Newton (1994) Am Fam Physician 49(4): 787-97 [PubMed]

frontal lobe (C0016733)

Definition (FMA) Frontal lobe is the anterior-most of five lobes of the cerebral hemisphere. It is bounded by the central sulcus on its posterior border and by the longitudinal cerebral fissure on its medial border.
Definition (NCI) The part of the brain located anterior to the parietal lobes at the front of each cerebral hemisphere.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The part of the brain located anterior to the parietal lobes at the front of each cerebral hemisphere. (NCI)
Definition (MSH) The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D005625
SnomedCT 83251001
English Frontal Lobes, Frontal Lobe, Lobe, Frontal, Lobes, Frontal, Tissue of frontal lobe brain, Tissue of frontal lobe of brain, frontal lobe, Regio frontalis, Frontal cortex, Frontal region, frontal lobe (brain), frontal regions, frontal lobes, frontal brain lobe, frontal lobe brain, brain frontal lobe, FL, frontal cortex, Lobus frontalis, Lobi frontales, Frontal lobes, FRONTAL LOBE, Frontali, Lobus, Frontal Cortices, Frontalis, Lobus, Frontal Cortex, Lobus Frontali, Cortex, Frontal, Lobus Frontalis, Cortices, Frontal, Frontal lobe, Frontal lobe structure (body structure), Frontal lobe structure, Frontal lobe, NOS, lobus frontalis
Swedish Frontallob
Czech čelní lalok, frontální lalok
Finnish Otsalohko
Russian LOBNAIA DOLIA, PODMOZOLISTOE POLE, BROKA OBONIATEL'NOE POLE, БРОКА ОБОНЯТЕЛЬНОЕ ПОЛЕ, ЛОБНАЯ ДОЛЯ, ПОДМОЗОЛИСТОЕ ПОЛЕ
Croatian FRONTALNI REŽANJ
Polish Płat czołowy
Norwegian Lobus frontalis, Frontallapp, Pannelapp
Spanish estructura del lóbulo frontal (estructura corporal), estructura del lóbulo frontal, lóbulo frontal, Lóbulo Frontal
French Lobe frontal
German Frontallappen, Lobus frontalis
Italian Lobo frontale
Dutch Frontaalkwab, Lobus frontalis cerebri, Voorhoofdskwab
Portuguese Lobo Frontal
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Structure of superior frontal gyrus (C0152296)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D017397
SnomedCT 36181007
English Superior frontal convolution, SFG, marginal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, superior frontal convolution, Gyrus F1, Gyrus frontalis superior, Gyrus frontalis primus, Superior Frontal Gyrus, Marginal Gyrus, Superior, Gyrus Frontalis, Convolution, Superior Frontal, Gyrus Frontalis Superiors, Frontal Gyrus, Superior, Gyrus, Marginal, Convolutions, Superior Frontal, Gyrus, Superior Frontal, Frontal Convolutions, Superior, Superior Frontal Convolution, Superior Frontal Convolutions, Gyrus Frontalis Superior, Frontal Convolution, Superior, Frontalis Superior, Gyrus, Frontalis Superiors, Gyrus, Superiors, Gyrus Frontalis, Superior frontal gyrus, Marginal gyrus, Structure of superior frontal gyrus (body structure), Structure of superior frontal gyrus
Spanish circunvolución frontal superior, circunvolución marginal, estructura de la circunvolución frontal superior (estructura corporal), estructura de la circunvolución frontal superior
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Middle frontal gyrus structure (C0152297)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
SnomedCT 74528000
English Middle frontal gyrus structure (body structure), Structure of middle frontal gyrus (body structure), Gyrus frontalis medialis, Structure of middle frontal gyrus, Intermediate frontal gyrus, Medial frontal gyrus x, Middle Frontal Convolution, Middle Frontal Gyrus, intermediate frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, MFG, medial frontal gyrus (Mai), Gyrus frontalis medius, Gyrus frontalis medialis (Winters), Gyrus frontalis secundus, Gyrus F2, Middle frontal gyrus, Middle frontal gyrus structure
Spanish circunvolución frontal media, estructura de la circunvolución frontal media (estructura corporal), estructura de la circunvolución frontal media
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Inferior frontal gyrus (C0152298)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D017397
SnomedCT 5336001
English Structure of inferior frontal gyrus, Inferior frontal gyrus structure (body structure), Inferior frontal gyrus structure, Structure of inferior frontal gyrus (body structure), Inferior frontal convolution, Inferior Frontal Convolution, IFG, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior frontal convolution, Regio subfrontalis, Gyrus frontalis inferior, Gyrus frontalis tertius, Gyrus F3, Inferior Frontal Gyrus, Frontalis Inferior, Gyrus, Inferior, Gyrus Frontalis, Gyrus, Inferior Frontal, Gyrus Frontalis Inferiors, Gyrus Frontalis Inferior, Frontalis Inferiors, Gyrus, Frontal Gyrus, Inferior, Inferiors, Gyrus Frontalis, Inferior frontal gyrus
Spanish circunvolución frontal inferior, estructura de la circunvolución frontal inferior (estructura corporal), estructura de la circunvolución frontal inferior
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Precentral gyrus (C0152299)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D005625
SnomedCT 465006
English Structure of ascending frontal gyrus (body structure), Structure of ascending frontal gyrus, Ascending frontal gyrus structure, Ascending frontal gyrus structure (body structure), Prerolandic gyrus, Precentral convolution, prerolandic gyrus, PrG, motor cortex (Noback), precentral convolution, precentral gyrus, anterior central gyrus, Gyrus centralis anterior, Gyrus precentralis, Gyrus praecentralis, Gyrus, Anterior Central, Gyrus, Precentral, Precentrali, Gyrus, Anterior Central Gyrus, Precentral Gyrus, Central Gyrus, Anterior, Gyrus Precentrali, Gyrus Precentralis, Precentralis, Gyrus, Ascending frontal gyrus, Precentral gyrus
Spanish circunvolución frontal ascendente, circunvolución precentral, estructura de la circunvolución frontal ascendente (estructura corporal), estructura de la circunvolución frontal ascendente
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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