Neurology Book

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Sensation

Aka: Sensation, Somatic Sensation, Perception, Sensory Nerve Ending, Sensory Receptor, Chemoreceptor, Mechanoreceptor, Thermoreceptor, Nociceptor, Proprioceptor, Pressoreceptor, Encapsulated Nerve Ending, Free Nerve Ending, Pacinian Corpuscle, Meisner's Corpuscle, Merkel Cell
  1. See Also
    1. Neuron
    2. Sensory Exam
    3. Two Point Discrimination
    4. Agnosia
    5. Pain Sensation
  2. Physiology: Sensory stimuli
    1. Mechanical stimulation
      1. Touch and Pressure
      2. Vibration
      3. Baroreceptors (e.g. aortic and carotid bodies)
      4. Sound receptors (e.g. Cochlea) allowing for hearing
      5. Movement against gravity (Vestibular Labyrinths) allowing for balance
    2. Thermal stimulation
      1. Hot and cold Sensation
    3. Pain stimulation
      1. Nociceptors
    4. Chemical stimulation
      1. Taste Bud
      2. Olfactory receptors allowing for smell
      3. pH Receptors (central Chemoreceptors on ventrolateral Medulla in Brainstem)
      4. Osmolality receptors (supraoptic nuclei Hypothalamus)
    5. Electromagnetic stimulation
      1. Retinal Photoreceptors (rods, cones) allowing for vision
  3. Physiology: Somatic Sensory Nerve Endings
    1. Free Nerve Endings
      1. Includes pain (Nociceptors) and Temperature (Thermoreceptors)
      2. Also includes touch (Merkel disks) and Hair Root tactile receptors
      3. Unmyelinated fibers spread throughout Epidermis and Dermis
    2. Encapsulated Receptors
      1. Specialized functioning receptors for detection of all other Sensations except pain and Temperature
      2. Includes light touch (Meissner's corpuscle), deep pressure and vibration (Pacinian Corpuscle)
      3. Also includes Muscle stretch (Muscle Spindle receptors) and Muscle tendon tension (Golgi Tendon Organs)
  4. References
    1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Physiology p. 90-2
    2. Guyton and Hall (2006) Medical Physiology, p. 572-84

Chemoreceptor Cells (C0008010)

Definition (MSH) Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Definition (CSP) sensory nerve endings capable of transducing chemical stimuli into neuronal impulses; do not confuse with receptor molecules, which are covered under RECEPTOR.
Concepts Cell (T025)
MSH D002628
English chemoreceptor, Chemoreceptor, Cells, Chemoreceptor, Chemoreceptor Cell, Chemoreceptive Cells, Cells, Chemoreceptive, Cell, Chemoreceptor, Cell, Chemoreceptive, Chemoreceptive Cell, Chemoreceptor Cells, chemoreceptors, Chemoreceptors
Czech chemoreceptory, chemoreceptorové buňky
Finnish Kemoreseptorit
Russian KHEMORETSEPTORY, KHIMIORETSEPTOR, KHEMORETSEPTOR, ХЕМОРЕЦЕПТОРНЫЕ КЛЕТКИ, ХЕМОРЕЦЕПТОРЫ, KHEMORETSEPTORNYE KLETKI, ХЕМОРЕЦЕПТОР, ХИМИОРЕЦЕПТОР
Spanish Células Quimiorreceptoras
French Cellules chimioréceptrices, Cellules chémoréceptrices
Portuguese Células Quimiorreceptoras
Swedish Kemoreceptorceller
Croatian KEMORECEPTORI
Latvian Hemoreceptoru šūnas
Polish Chemoreceptory, Komórki chemoreceptorowe
Japanese 化学受容細胞, 化学受容体細胞, 化学受容器, 化学受容体
Norwegian Kjemoreseptorceller, Kjemoreseptive celler
German Chemorezeptoren
Italian Chemorecettori
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Mechanoreceptors (C0025032)

Definition (MSH) Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Definition (CSP) receptor cell that is sensitive to mechanical stimulation such as touch, pressure, or tension.
Concepts Cell (T025)
MSH D008465
English Mechanoreceptors, MECHANORECEPT, Mechanoreceptor, Cells, Mechanoreceptor, Mechanoreceptor Cells, Cell, Mechanoreceptor, mechanoreceptor, mechanoreceptors, Mechanoreceptor Cell, Auditory Receptor Cell
Swedish Mekanoreceptorer
Czech mechanoreceptory
Finnish Mekanoreseptorit
Russian KRAUZE KOLBY, RETSEPTORY RASTIAZHENIIA, MEISSNERA CHUVSTVITEL'NOE TEL'TSE, NERVNO-SUKHOZHIL'NYE VERETENA, MEISSNERA OSIAZATEL'NOE TEL'TSE, RUFFINI TEL'TSA, MEKHANORETSEPTORY, KRAUZE KONTSEVYE LUKOVITSY, КРАУЗЕ КОЛБЫ, КРАУЗЕ КОНЦЕВЫЕ ЛУКОВИЦЫ, МЕЙССНЕРА ОСЯЗАТЕЛЬНОЕ ТЕЛЬЦЕ, МЕЙССНЕРА ЧУВСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ ТЕЛЬЦЕ, МЕХАНОРЕЦЕПТОРЫ, НЕРВНО-СУХОЖИЛЬНЫЕ ВЕРЕТЕНА, РЕЦЕПТОРЫ РАСТЯЖЕНИЯ, РУФФИНИ ТЕЛЬЦА
Japanese マイスネル小体, Meissner小体, ゴルジ腱紡錘, 伸展受容器, 機械的受容器, 腱紡錘, 伸長受容器, Ruffini小体, 伸張受容器, 機械受容器, Krause終末小体
Croatian Not Translated[Mechanoreceptors]
Latvian Mehanoreceptori
Polish Mechanoreceptory, Receptory rozciągowe, Narządy Ruffiniego, Narządy Krauzego
Norwegian Mekanoreseptorceller, Mekanoreseptorer
German Mechanorezeptoren
Italian Meccanorecettori
Dutch Mechanoreceptoren, Receptor, mechano-
Portuguese Mecanorreceptores
French Mécanorécepteur, Mécanorécepteurs
Spanish Mecanorreceptores
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Nociceptors (C0028246)

Definition (MSH) Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Definition (NCI) A free nerve ending that is a receptor for painful stimuli. (Kanner)
Definition (CSP) receptor for pain caused by damage to body tissue.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D009619
English Nociceptors, Pain Receptors, Receptors, Pain, nociceptor, NOCICEPT, RECEPT PAIN, PAIN RECEPT, pain receptor, Nociceptive Neurons, Neuron, Nociceptive, Neurons, Nociceptive, Nociceptive Neuron, nociceptors, pain receptors, receptor pain, Nociceptor, Pain Receptor
French Récepteurs à la douleur, Nocicepteur, Nocicepteurs, Récepteurs de la douleur
Swedish Smärtreceptorer
Finnish Kipureseptorit
Russian BOLEVYE RETSEPTORY, NOTSIRETSEPTORY, NOTSITSEPTORY, NOTSITSEPTOR, БОЛЕВЫЕ РЕЦЕПТОРЫ, НОЦИРЕЦЕПТОРЫ, НОЦИЦЕПТОР, НОЦИЦЕПТОРЫ
Italian Recettori del dolore, Neuroni nocicettivi, Nocicettori
Portuguese Receptores de Dor, Neurônios Nociceptores, Nociceptores
Croatian NOCICEPTORI
Polish Receptory bólowe
Japanese 侵害受容器, 痛み受容器, 有害受容体, 痛覚受容体, 痛覚受容器
Czech nociceptory, nociceptivní receptory, nociceptivní neurony, receptory bolesti
Norwegian Nociseptorer, Smertereseptorer, Nocireseptorer
German Nozizeptoren, Rezeptoren, Schmerz-, Schmerzrezeptoren
Dutch Nociceptor, Nociceptoren, Pijnreceptoren, Receptoren, Pijn
Spanish Nociceptores, Receptores del Dolor
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Perception (C0030971)

Definition (ICF) Specific mental functions of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli.
Definition (ICF-CY) Specific mental functions of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli.
Definition (NCI) The process of producing an internal, conscious image through stimulating a sensory system; it involves the recognition that stimulation has occurred, and the ability to discriminate various aspects of the stimulus.
Definition (MSH) The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
Definition (PSY) Conceptually broad term referring to the process of obtaining cognitive or sensory information about the environment. Use a more specific term if possible.
Definition (CSP) the process of producing an internal, conscious image through stimulating a sensory system; it involves the recognition that stimulation has occurred, and the ability to discriminate various aspects of the stimulus.
Concepts Mental Process (T041)
MSH D010465
SnomedCT 81742003, 275276009
English Perception, Perceptions, Perception, function, Perceptual functions, unspecified, Perceptual functions, perceptions, perceiving, perception, perceived, Perceived, Perception (observable entity), Perception, function (observable entity), Perception, NOS, Perception (function)
Swedish Uppfattning
Czech vnímání, percepce
Finnish Aistimukset
Russian VOSPRIIATIE, ВОСПРИЯТИЕ
Croatian PERCEPCIJA
Polish Postrzeganie, Percepcja
Norwegian Sansing, Sansning, Persepsjon
Spanish percepción (entidad observable), percepción (función), percepción, Percepción
French Perception
German Perzeption, Wahrnehmung
Italian Percezione
Dutch Perceptie, Waarneming
Portuguese Percepção
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Pressoreceptors (C0033093)

Definition (MSH) Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Definition (CSP) pressure receptor in the wall of the atrium of the heart, vena cava, aortic arch and carotid sinus that is sensitive to stretching of the wall which occurs with increased pressure.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D011311
English Baroreceptors, Pressoreceptor, Pressoreceptors, Receptors, Stretch, Arterial, Receptors, Stretch, Vascular, Stretch Receptors, Arterial, Stretch Receptors, Vascular, Arterial Stretch Receptor, Arterial Stretch Receptors, Receptor, Arterial Stretch, Receptor, Vascular Stretch, Receptors, Arterial Stretch, Receptors, Vascular Stretch, Stretch Receptor, Arterial, Stretch Receptor, Vascular, Vascular Stretch Receptor, Vascular Stretch Receptors, baroreceptor, pressoreceptor, STRETCH RECEPT VASCULAR, RECEPT STRETCH ARTERIAL, STRETCH RECEPT ARTERIAL, PRESSORECEPT, BARORECEPT, RECEPT STRETCH VASCULAR, Baroreceptor, baroreceptors
French Récepteurs à l'étirement de la paroi vasculaire, Récepteurs vasculaires à l'étirement, Baro-récepteurs, Barorécepteurs, Pressorécepteurs
Swedish Tryckreceptorer
Czech baroreceptory, presoreceptory
Finnish Baroreseptorit
Russian BARORETSEPTORY, RETSEPTORY PRESSORNYE, TENZORETSEPTORY, BAROTSEPTORY, RETSEPTORY RASTIAZHENIIA SOSUDISTYE, PRESSORETSEPTORY, RETSEPTORY RASTIAZHENIIA ARTERIAL'NYE, БАРОРЕЦЕПТОРЫ, БАРОЦЕПТОРЫ, ПРЕССОРЕЦЕПТОРЫ, РЕЦЕПТОРЫ ПРЕССОРНЫЕ, РЕЦЕПТОРЫ РАСТЯЖЕНИЯ АРТЕРИАЛЬНЫЕ, РЕЦЕПТОРЫ РАСТЯЖЕНИЯ СОСУДИСТЫЕ, ТЕНЗОРЕЦЕПТОРЫ
Japanese 圧受容器, 動脈伸展受容器, 動脈伸張受容器, 圧受容体, 脈管伸張受容器, 血管伸張受容器, 受容器-動脈伸張, 受容器-血管伸張
Italian Barorecettori, Pressorecettori
Croatian TLAK, RECEPTORI
Latvian Presoreceptori
Polish Pressoreceptory
Norwegian Strekkreseptorer, vaskulære, Strekkreseptorer, arterielle, Pressoreseptorer, Baroreseptorer
German Barorezeptoren, Dehnungsrezeptoren, arterielle, Pressorezeptoren, Rezeptoren, Dehnungs-, arterielle, Dehnungsrezeptoren, vaskuläre, Rezeptoren, Dehnungs-, vaskuläre
Dutch Baroreceptoren, Drukreceptor, Drukreceptoren, Pressoreceptoren, Receptor, druk-, Vasculaire rekreceptoren, Arteriële rekreceptoren
Portuguese Barorreceptores, Pressorreceptores, Receptores Arteriais de Estiramento, Receptores Vasculares de Estiramento, Receptores de Estiramento Arterial, Receptores de Estiramento Vascular
Spanish Barorreceptores, Presorreceptores, Receptores de Estiramiento Arterial, Receptores de Estiramiento Vascular
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Sensory Receptor Cells (C0034837)

Definition (MSH) Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Definition (CSP) specialized sensory nerve processes or epithelial structures that respond to specific kinds of stimuli in the internal or external environment; this term refers to cells and cellular structures, as opposed to the molecular and submembrane structures covered by RECEPTOR.
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
MSH D011984
English Neural Receptor, Neural Receptors, Neuroreceptor, Neuroreceptors, Receptor, Neural, Receptor, Sensory, Receptors, Neural, Sensory Receptor, Sensory Receptors, sensory receptor, NEURORECEPT, RECEPT SENSORY, RECEPT NEURAL, NEURAL RECEPT, SENSORY RECEPT, neuroreceptor, receptor organ, Sensory receptor, Peripheral ending of sensory neuron, Receptor Cells, Sensory, Neuron, Sensory, Sensory Receptor Cell, Sensory Neuron, Receptor Cell, Sensory, Neurons, Sensory, Receptors, Sensory, Sensory Neurons, Sensory Receptor Cells, sensory receptors, neuroreceptors, organs receptor, neural receptors, Sensory receptors, Receptors (Neural)
Czech receptory senzorické, neuroreceptory, senzorické neurony, nervové receptory, senzorické receptorové buňky
Finnish Aistinreseptorit
Italian Recettori neurali, Neurorecettori, Recettori sensoriali
Russian RETSEPTORY CHUVSTVITEL'NYE, RETSEPTORY SENSORNYE, NEIRORETSEPTORY, NERVNYE OKONCHANIIA CHUVSTVITEL'NYE, СЕНСОРНЫЕ РЕЦЕПТОРНЫЕ КЛЕТКИ, SENSORNYE RETSEPTORNYE KLETKI, РЕЦЕПТОРЫ ЧУВСТВИТЕЛЬНЫЕ, НЕЙРОРЕЦЕПТОРЫ, НЕРВНЫЕ ОКОНЧАНИЯ ЧУВСТВИТЕЛЬНЫЕ, РЕЦЕПТОРЫ СЕНСОРНЫЕ
Japanese 感覚受容体, 神経系受容体, 神経受容体, 受容器-感覚, 受容体-神経系, 知覚性神経終末, 感覚受容器, 感覚受容細胞, 感覚刺激受容器
Spanish Neuronas Sensoriales, Células Receptoras Sensoriales, Neuronas Sensitivas, Receptores Sensitivos, Terminaciones Nerviosas Sensitivas, Neurorreceptores, Receptores Neurales
French Neurones sensoriels, Récepteurs sensoriels, Cellules réceptrices sensorielles, Neurorécepteurs
Portuguese Neurônios Sensitivos, Células Receptoras Sensoriais, Receptores Sensoriais, Neurônios Sensoriais, Terminações Nervosas Sensoriais, Neurorreceptores, Receptores Neurais
Croatian RECEPTORI, OSJETNI
Latvian Not Translated[Sensory Receptor Cells]
Swedish Sensoriska receptorceller
Polish Ciałka dotykowe, Neurony czuciowe, Receptory czuciowe, Zakończenia nerwowe czuciowe, Komórki receptorowe czuciowe
Norwegian Nevroreseptorer, Sensoriske nevroner, Nevrale reseptorer, Sensoriske reseptorer, Sensoriske reseptorceller
German Neurorezeptoren, Rezeptoren, neuronale, Rezeptoren, sensible
Dutch Receptor, sensore, Receptoren, neurale, Receptoren, sensore
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Thermoreceptors (C0039821)

Definition (MSH) Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.
Definition (CSP) cellular receptor or nerve ending, usually in the skin in vertebrates, that is sensitive to changes in temperature.
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
MSH D013823
English Thermoreceptors, thermoreceptor, THERMORECEPT, temperature receptor, thermoreceptors, receptors temperature, Thermoreceptor
French Récepteurs thermosensibles, Récepteurs à la température, Récepteurs sensibles à la température, Thermorécepteur, Thermo-récepteurs, Thermocepteurs, Thermorécepteurs
Swedish Värmereceptorer
Czech termoreceptory
Finnish Lämpötilareseptorit
Russian RETSEPTORY TEMPERATURNYE, TERMORETSEPTORY, РЕЦЕПТОРЫ ТЕМПЕРАТУРНЫЕ, ТЕРМОРЕЦЕПТОРЫ
Latvian Termoreceptori
Polish Termoreceptory, Receptory zimna, Receptory ciepła
Norwegian Kuldereseptorer, Varmereseptorer, Termoreseptorer
Spanish Receptores de Temperatura, Termorreceptores
German Thermorezeptoren
Italian Termorecettori
Dutch Receptor, thermo-, Thermoreceptor, Thermoreceptoren
Portuguese Termorreceptores
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Nerve Endings, Sensory (C0086697)

Concepts Cell Component (T026)
MSH D011984
English Nerve Ending, Sensory, Sensory Nerve Ending, Sensory Nerve Endings, Nerve Endings, Sensory
Portuguese Terminações Nervosas Sensitivas
Spanish Terminaciones Nerviosas Sensoriales
French Terminaisons nerveuses sensitives, Terminaisons nerveuses sensorielles
German Nervenendungen, sensorische
Italian Terminazioni nervose sensoriali
Czech senzorická nervová zakončení
Norwegian Sensoriske nerveender
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Merkel Cells (C0205832)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A special type of cell found right below the epidermis (top layer of skin). These cells are very close to the nerve endings that receive the sensation of touch and may be involved in touch. The cells also contain substances that may act as hormones.
Definition (NCI) Modified epidermal cells located in the stratum basale. They are found mostly in areas where sensory perception is acute, such as the fingertips. Merkel cells are closely associated with an expanded terminal bulb of an afferent myelinated nerve fiber. (MeSH)
Definition (MSH) Modified epidermal cells located in the stratum basale. They are found mostly in areas where sensory perception is acute, such as the fingertips. Merkel cells are closely associated with an expanded terminal bulb of an afferent myelinated nerve fiber. Do not confuse with Merkel's corpuscle which is a combination of a neuron and an epidermal cell.
Concepts Cell (T025)
MSH D018862
SnomedCT 10149001
English Receptor, Merkel, Merkel's Receptor, Merkel Receptor, Merkel Receptors, Merkel's Receptors, Merkels Receptor, Receptor, Merkel's, Receptors, Merkel, Receptors, Merkel's, Cells, Merkel, Merkel Cells, Receptors, Merkels, MERKELS RECEPT, RECEPT MERKELS, MERKEL RECEPT, RECEPT MERKEL, Merkel cell, merkel cell, merkel's cell, cell merkel, merkel cells, Merkel cells, Merkel's cell, Merkel's cell (cell), Merkel's cell (body structure), Merkel Cell
Swedish Merkelceller
Czech Merkelovy buňky
Finnish Merkelin solut
Italian Recettori di Merkel, Recettore di Merkel, Cellule di Merkel
Russian MERKELIA KLETKI, MERKELIA RETSEPTORY, МЕРКЕЛЯ КЛЕТКИ, МЕРКЕЛЯ РЕЦЕПТОРЫ
Japanese Merkel細胞, Merkel受容器, メルケル細胞
Polish Komórki Merkla
Norwegian Merkel-reseptorer, Merkels sanselegemer, Merkelceller
Spanish célula de Merkel (célula), célula de Merkel (estructura corporal), célula de Merkel, Receptor de Merkel, Células de Merkel
German Merkel-Tastzellen, Merkelrezeptor, Merkelzellen
Dutch Merkel, tastlichaampje van, Tastlichaampje van Merkel
Portuguese Células de Merkel, Receptor de Merkel
French Cellule de Merkel, Cellules de Merkel, Récepteur de Merkel, Récepteurs de Merkel
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Free nerve ending (C0228107)

Definition (NCI) Free nerve endings are widely distributed throughout the body, and are found as branches of unmyelinated, or lightly myelinated fibres grouped in bundles beneath the epithelium. As they penetrate the epithelium, they lose their myelin, and branch among the epithelial cells. Branches of one nerve may cover a wide area and overlap the territories of other nerves. The free nerve endings detect pain, touch, pressure and temperature, and are associated with C fibres.
Concepts Cell Component (T026)
SnomedCT 38005009
English Unencapsulated nerve ending, free nerve ending, endings free nerve, Free nerve ending, Free nerve ending (body structure), Free Nerve Endings, Free Nerve Ending
Spanish terminación libre del nervio (estructura corporal), terminación libre del nervio
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Somatic sensation (C0234209)

Definition (CSP) consciousness of having a body.
Concepts Organism Function (T040)
SnomedCT 90130008, 397725003
English somesthesis, somatesthesia, Somatic sensation, Somesthesia, Somaesthesia, Somataesthesia, Somatesthesia, Somatic sensation, function (observable entity), Somatic sensation, function, Somatic sensation (function)
Spanish sensación somática (entidad observable), somestesia, sensación somática, sensación somática (función), sensación somática, función (entidad observable), sensación somática, función
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Proprioceptor (C0682649)

Concepts Cell (T025)
English Proprioceptor, proprioceptor, proprioceptors, Proprioceptors, Proprioceptive Sensory Neuron
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Encapsulated nerve ending (C2327662)

Concepts Cell Component (T026)
English Encapsulated nerve ending
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Nerve ending within Pacinian corpuscle (C2338921)

Concepts Cell Component (T026)
English Nerve ending within Pacinian corpuscle
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Nerve ending within Meisner's corpuscle (C2339497)

Concepts Cell Component (T026)
English Nerve ending within Meisner's corpuscle
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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